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2000

2000 Journals

January 2000 February 2000 March 2002 April 2000 May 2000 June 2000 July 2000 August 2000 September 2002 October 2000 November 2000

i 'BROMELIAD
Society of New Zealand Inc.
I BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was officially formed on the 28th. August, 1962.
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads
grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation,
propagation and control of diseases.
(b) To provide a library for members.
(0) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst
members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to
encourage the importation of new plants.
(9) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do
such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable
in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar
objects.
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at
Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS
New Zealand NZ$20.00 Ordinary
NZ$ 5.00 Associate (same household)
Overseas NZ$25.00 Australia
NZ$30.00 United States and other oVerseas
Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 HaIfmoon Rise,
Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad
Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
FRONT COVER
Blue skies and scarlet pohutukawa blossom — memories of
Christmases past are always triggered by this combination, no matter
where in the world you presently live.
The Project Crimson Trust aims to keep it that way and repair the
ravages of past and present (animals and humans) and extend the
coastal plantings for future enjoyment
Inset: Tillandsia gardneri
Photo: Bret McKay
Photo: Win Shorrock
2
CONTENTS
4 From the President Graham West
5,6 October meeting news Dave Anderson
7, Looking back Peter Waters
8 New members
9 October mini-talk Carol Davis
10 A new group Pam Signal
11-14 Miniature tillandsias Brian Dawson
15-18 Exotic garden curtains Louise Joyce
19,20 Show classes - 2001
21,22 Tips on preparing plants for show Olive Trevor
22 Northland Bromeliad Group Jacqui O’Connell
23 Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group Kevin Schollum
24 Wellington tillandsia study group Phyllis Purdie
Andrew Flower
25 Seedbank Gerry Stansfield
26 Basics for beginners...labelling
27 Officers, journal and advertising
COMING EVENTS
NOVEMBER
26th Wellington Tillandsia Study Group at 1:30pm at Andrew
Flower’s, Pukerua Bay.
28th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
Plant auction and Christmas break up.
Monthly plant competition: Bromeliad Christmas Decoration
DECEMBER
3rd Northland Bromeliad Group - a Christmas luncheon at
Valentines Restaurant then to Robyn Powell, Maungatapere.
13th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - 12 noon— a Christmas
luncheon at the Tauranga Yacht Clubrooms.
JANUARY
2"" Deadline for copy for the January Journal.
23rd Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
Talk: Bromeliads in full sun.
Monthly plant competition: Vriesea platynema & hybrids
FROM THE PRESIDENT
With summer virtually here, our garden had dried up very early, so
the last few days of heavy rain have been very welcome.
October’s meeting was well attended (a few less than lately) and
the evening’s programme started and finished on time. A record
number of plants were sold from the trading table and there was much
more variety on offer.
Recently I had the privilege of attending Whakatane’s interest
meeting to discuss forming a bromeliad group. This was held at Sue
and Ken Laurent’s home, a lovely property, with bromeliads and
orchids planted through their native bush. They have fantastic
foresight and imagination. Twenty-seven very enthusiastic friends
attended. I would like to send Whakatane our very best wishes for the
future.
The workshop on the 29th October was attended by fifteen
members. Des Yeates demonstrated pup removal and various ways
of potting up and Brian Dawson gave a talk and demonstration with
tillandsias. A very well prepared afternoon and congratulations from
all present.
A reminder to members to return their yellow forms as soon as
possible to indicate their interest in attending Conference 2003.
Graham
ANNUAL COMPETITIVE SHOWg2001
This will be held on the weekend of the 24‘" and 25‘" February.
PLANT SALES
Those members wishing to sell plants would you please,
advise me of the quantity (approximate) of labels that you will
require, both tie on (for unpotted plants) and self-adhesive for
rooted potted plants.
Unfortunately at the last show, labels were sent out not
counted, and as a result, members received far too many. Would
members please send back immediately their surplus labels to: g
GRAHAM WEST, 1 Cameron Street, Papakura. Ph. (09)298-3479
This needs to be done by the end of December so that, if more
labels are required for the show sales table plants, the
committee will be able to have them made'I n time.
OCTOBER MEETING NEWS
A small number of members went to our Patron’s residence on the
9th October and ‘threw’ a surprise party. It was Bea Hanson’s ninetieth
birthday, and from all accounts, the birthday party was a great
success. Bea — may you have many more!!!
As all members probably now know, the Bromeliad Society of
Australia have offered the 2003 Conference to be hosted in Auckland.
To assist the organisers, please return your yellow flyer (in last
month's Journal) as soon as possible. It promises to be a really
wonderful occasion for all those bromeliad lovers.
Peter Waters hosted the Show & Tell plants. First up for naming
was Aechmea miniata disco/or. It had probably been grown in very
high light as the colours were washed out. Next up was another plant
for naming which was probably Neoregelia Bobby Dazzler, although
Bobby Dazzler normally has more spots than the plant shown here. It
is worth stating, that if a plant cannot be positively identified, please
do not put a plant label with that name on it with the plant. Put a label
with a number on it and (with very little effort) write the number and
plant name in a notebook. Simple isn’t it? It will certainly help in
stopping incorrectly named plants appearing. A Billbergia Santa
Barbara with practically no stripes wanted a name. This is a cultivar of
Billbergia distachia, and the stripes may come back if planted in the
ground. Then another Bill. distachia hybrid that would be easier to
identify in flower. And, talking of wrongly named plants, there was a
Tillandsia rodigisiana that the owner could not find in any literature
because this really was Vriesea mdigisiana which had been
misnamed in Auckland many years ago. Graham West brought in
Neoregelia Bea Hanson and, as he had eight different plants by this
name, he wanted to know if this was the real one - it was. He had
also brought in a neoregelia with a bright red centre and was
wondering if it was Medallion. No - once again people have named
plants from books. It is to be noted that Medallion doesn’t seem to
flower and also does not propagate easily. Peter had for display the
lovely species, Neoregelia bahiana, the plant itself going quite pink in
very high light. This is the true species that is different from the larger
plant that many of us have here in NZ with this name. He also
displayed the species Neoregelia marmorata that had come from
Selby Gardens, the plant having originally been collected in the wild. it
was a large plant, quite unlike the smaller plants seen in New Zealand
under this name. And next was a Vriesea splendens, or a cultivar of it,
5
that someone was trying to revive after it was obtained In a sorry state
from a nursery. This plant likes it warm and damp. Next was an
Aechmea Pink Rocket - fasciata x fend/eri — wanting a name. This
plant colours up very highly in full sun, with perhaps its only drawback
being that scale seems to descend on it. Following this, a very green,
long leafed neoregelia that had been growing inside, in the lounge,
with regular fertilising. it would probably redden up if grown outside in
bright light. if it wasn’t fed it would be much squatter. Last was a
stoloniferous plant that was dark red, possibly having Neo. cruenta as
one parent, growing in full sun.
The door prizes went to Carol Wells, Mal Cameron and Laura
Gosse. Keiko Ruwhiu won the special raffle and Glenys Guild the
2003 Conference prize.
COMPETITIONS
Open flowering: 1St Len Trotman with Guzmania Peacockii and 2"“
Gerry Stansfield with Aechmea fasciata ‘Kiwi’. Also in competition
were: Ae. Coral Berry, Guz’s. Ostara & Tutti Frutti, Neo.’s Grace,
Flandria, Rosy Mom and (carolinae x compacta) x macwilliamsii, and
Vriesea platynema (variegata).
Open foliage: 1St Len Trotman with Guzmania Gisela (yellow
variegata) and 2nd Laurie Dephoff with Neo. Fosperior Perfection. In
the competition were Ae. ’s Pink Rocket, lueddimanniana ‘Mediopicta',
Cryptanthus Midnight, Neo.’s Amazing Grace, Blood Plum, Empress
and johannis ‘De Rolf’, Vrieseas saundersii x bituminosa (variegata),
fosteriana, fosten'ana (rubra), platynema (variegata) and platynema x
gigantea.
Tillandsia: 1St was Laurie Dephoff with T. purpurea, 2nd was Dave
Anderson with T. capitata. Also on the table were T.’s aeranthos #1
and #2, vicentina, xerographica, Iampropoda x deppeana, straminea
and selen'ana.
Plant of the month - Neoregelia marmorata 8. hybrids: 1St Peter
Waters with Neo. mannorata x followed by Win Shorrock’s Neo.
marmorata hybrid. In the competition were Ned’s tristis x mannorata,
lnca and a mam'Iorata hybrid.
Novice flowering: 1Sit was Rosemary Thomas with Nidulan’um
antoineanum and 2"GI Kevin Kilsby with Till. tn'color. The plant
misnamed Nid. antoineanum has been in NZ for many, many years.
Novice Foliage: 1St was Kevin Kilsby with Vriesea hieroglyphica and
2'1d was Megan Thomas with a Neoregelia x.
Best plant of the month: Len Trotman —- Guzmania Peacockii.
Congratulations to all the winners. Dave Anderson
6
LOOKING BACK July 1972
President’s message Peter Waters
An interesting sight on a Society outing some months ago, was a
clump of Cryptanthus bromelioides tricolor apparently thriving, semi-
submerged in an aquarium. This looked to be a ludicrous situation at
first, but on consideration, it seemed that this might be taking the fact
that cryptanthus prefer high humidity, to its logical conclusion.
I decided to experiment along these lines myself and potted a
small plant of the same species in a 3” clay pot. This was then stood
in a plastic dish containing 2" of water. This kept the potting mix
thoroughly wet at all times and must also have increased the humidity
of the surrounding atmosphere.
After a few weeks, the increase in the growth was amazing and
new offsets appeared from many leaf axils. This continued for about
eight weeks until winter arrived with some very cold nights. This
affected the plant badly with the uppermost leaves dying off. This
would seem to indicate that the new growth had been too soft to cope
with the cold weather, but much to my surprise, there has still been no
rotting from the base. i have now placed the pot complete with water
container in a heated bed, which maintains bottom temperature at 60-
65 ° F, to see how things fare there.
Anyway, the gist of all this is that it illustrates a very important
point, and that is that we can all learn from each other when it comes
to growing bromeliads. Visits to other members collections will often
give one an idea, which can be applied to one's own collection.
But how much more, use could be made of these brainwaves or
results of experiments if members would take the time to write them
up for the Journal. How about it?
*- Did anyone heed Peter’s plea then? Will anyone take heed now???
MEMBERS CORNER ‘
Bromeliads wanted for buying, swapping or selling. Send details
to the -.Editor_ NO CHARGE
Swap — ~
Tillandsias copanensis and ponderosa
Buv
Tillandsias lucida and pamelae
Dave Anderson, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt Eden...Ph.(09)638-8671
NEW MEMBERS
The current November issue of the New Zealand Gardener
featured a short article (with Gil Hanly photograph) about the Society.
Their suggestions on the merits of joining the Society have resulted in
26 of the people listed below following their advice.
Bainbridge, Travis, Box 5379, Mt Maunganui.
Baker, Lucie-Anne, 52 Sunnyhaven Avenue, Beachhaven, Ak.
Barrett, Elizabeth, 4 Penders Place, Henderson, Ak.
Barry, T, 10 Kelvin Street, Gisborne.
Bennett, Robin, Box 1229, Gisborne.
Burling, Judith, Edmonds Road, RD3, Ken'keri.
Dmitrieff, Nina, Box 65, Oneroa, Waiheke Island.
Frederickson, P.J. 43 Jervois Street, Dargaville.
Furse, Jean, 73A Hathaway Avenue, Bucklands Beach, Ak.
Holder, Virginia, R09, Whangarei.
Hooper, Lyn, 74 Colville Road, Dargaville.
Jarrett, Alison, 42 Victoria Avenue, Whakatane.
Jones, Luen, 1A Rewarewa Road, Te Atatu, Ak.
Jugum, Ann, 6 South Lynn Road, Titirangi, Ak.
Lang, Elaine, Post Centre, Whangaruru, Northland.
Knight. T S, 31A Victoria Avenue, Morrinsville.
McDonald, Maureen, 68 Ladies Mile, Remuera, Ak.
McEwan, Robyn, 1 Wesley Street, Devonport, Ak.
McKenzie, Ian, 5 lnsley Street, Maungawhai, Northland.
McMillan, Val, 148 Christian Road, Swanson, Ak.
Moloney, Lisa, 27 Johnstone Sreet, Pt Chevalier, Ak.
Nickerson, Gavin, 38 Shelley Road, Gisborne.
Schanzer, Alex, 228 Cameron Town Road, RD3, Pukekohe.
Smith, McGregor, Clements Road, RD2, Matapouri Bay, Northland.
Somers, Jacqui, 5 Glendene Avenue, Glendene, Ak.
Stewart, Carol, Box 153, Thames.
Strong, Christine, 138 Wisely Road, West Harbour, Ak.
Voschezang, Hermien, 2 Landon Place, Pukekohe.
Webby, Julie, 158 Hermitage Road, RD2, Waiuku.
Woolston, Jude, 33A Havelock Avenue, Forrest Hill, Ak.
Ursulaea macvaughii
The Seedbank has just received a small quantity of this seed from
Grace Goode, Queensland. To ensure the widest distribution, it will be
packed five seeds per packet with only one packet available per
household at the usual terms. See Seedbank on page 25.
8
OCTOBER minitalk Carol Davis
ljoined the Bromeliad Society three years ago. At that time I had a
cafeteria business and Des Yeates asked me if he could put some
plants on display on my counter. I bought one and that was enough
for Des.
Next, l’m off to my first meeting as his guest. I was very impressed.
But the turning point was the annual show. I walked in there and could
not believe my eyes — so many, many beautiful plants. I have never
missed a meeting since and I encouraged my daughter-in-law,
Christine, to see the annual show. She is now hooked also!
What fun we have had — like the trip to Whangarei. The gardens
we visited were beautiful to say the least. When we arrived at the
second one, the bus emptied in record time. Christine and l wandered
into the front garden to find we were the only ones there. Where was
everyone? Des once again rescued us, as he came running up the
drive “Quick, quick, it’s buying time!" — and down to the back lawn
where we found hundreds of plants on sale and everyone buying up
large. We will know next trip.
Being newer members, we have a lot of unnamed plants from
these buy-ups. hence we bring them here to the Novice Table to get
them named. This is also a bit of a challenge. When one is told “Oh
yes this is a compacta or a recurvata or Fireball. Oh dear, back to the
picture book to find out what it is! Neoregelia, Aechmea, Billbergia,
Tillandsia - you see we really are still novices. Thank heavens for the
library; for Des and Brian’s workshops where one learns first hand
how to divide these great plants - an art in itself. But mainly a great
thank you to all the long-term members (who also attend every
meeting) helping us to partake of their knowledge and assisting us
“Newies” in so many ways.
SNIPPET from Ruth Baird
“It has recently been reported that scientists in China have
discovered that the bark of conifers, particularly cypress trees, is a
perfect medium for growing tomatoes. However the finding isn't new:
back in the early 1980’s, picking up on US research, NZ scientists
found that Radiata Pine bark reduced the incidence of soil-borne
diseases. As a result, granulated pinebark is now widely used in our
potting mixes"
...... from Consumer Home and Garden — issue 60.
A NEW GROUP?
A meeting was held recently to see if there was sufficient support
from people in the Eastern Bay of Plenty with an interest in
bromeliads and/or orchids to form a group. Twenty-seven people from
Whakatane, Opotiki and the surrounding districts attended this
meeting which was held at Sue and Ken Laurent's place in
Whakatane.
Whenever possible, those who already belong to the Bromeliad
Society of New Zealand attend the Tauranga meetings but, as many
work, they are only able to attend occasionally. Over recent years,
Trevor and l have noticed that many people in Whakatane bought and
grew orchids but when they found that the nearest Orchid Society
held its meeting in Te Puke, they felt it was too far to travel. We felt
sure that people wanted to share what they grow and what they know,
and would like to learn more about these fascinating plants.
We were fortunate also to have support and input from Graham
West, President of the Bromeliad Society, who attended the meeting.
With the response from the people at the meeting, it was decided to
form a small steering committee and to hold another meeting, this
time at Trevor and Pam Signal’s place on November 19"“.
After this inaugural meeting, everyone wandered through Sue and
Ken’s garden, which they have developed on a steep hillside. Many
bromeliads are grown in both bright, sunny areas and under the bush
canopy. it is a truly fascinating place to wander through.
We feel sure this group will flourish.
Pam Signal
AUCKLAND NOVEMBER MEETING
This meeting is the last for 2000 and is, of course, our Christmas
meeting. There will be no talk given, but instead an auction of large
and unusual plants will be held. This usually results in some very
spirited bidding for plants that are rarely to be found on the trading
tables. If you have an unusual plant to sell, telephone Des Yeates,
(09)838-6535 as only limited numbers are accepted for the auction.
The Monthly Plant Competition is a Christmas arrangement
using bromeliad material and anything festive.
Not least but certainly last is the Christmas Supper. Please bring a
plate (disposable/ no cleanup) of something enticing, edible and if
possible, seasonal in appearance.
manner cbnistmas
1 0
OCTOBER TALK
Miniature tillandsias Brian Dawson
When l look out my kitchen window, I look into a Novalite covered
deck open at each end. Hanging from the beams and noggings are
numerous pieces of driftwood with ‘Air Plants’ growing on them. It is
an amazing sight, especially when the reddish bracts, leaves and
blue, purple or green flowers appear. Some of the plants simply hang
by a wire or Clothespin, for most airplants need no roots. At night, the
appearance is enhanced with the plants appearing silver or white in
the light. I love to look at my plants in the dark with a flashlight, as
each one is concentrated in the spotlight and their beauty is not
dimmed by all the others around them. What makes these plants
beautiful is their form, the covering of dead cells that make up the
silver fuzz and their small size and portability.
This genus was named after a Scandinavian botanist, Elias
Tillands, hence Tillandsia. There are 532 species of tillandsias known
to us and they grow mainly in the mesic (medium wet) areas of the
southern United States in the north, to Chile and Argentina in the
south. The most popular species for collectors however, grow in xeric
(dry) areas clinging to rocks, cliffs, scrub and cacti, often in full
sunlight.
To enable themselves to grow in these harsh habitats, tillandsias
have evolved:
A thick layer of water storage tissue
Increased coverage of trichomes and stomata
Increased ability for self-fertilisation
A decrease in root development, leaf size and general plant size
A reduction in the number of flowers and fruit per shoot
For a full scientific explanation of the workings inside leaf and stem
cells, I refer you to Chapter 6 — Tillandsia Evolution and Biology - in
Paul lsley’s wonderful book, “Tillandsia” (1987).
You will notice a number of words that you may never have heard
of before. There are many processes and structures relating to
tillandsias that may be new to you, however, understanding these will
help you in your cultivation of tillandsias. You can ignore these
detailed scientific processes if you like and give your plants light,
some water and wind, and leave them to their own devices — they
should survive. Perhaps the most important word is trichomes. These
are what create that silvery sheen on leaves, stems, sheaths and
11
bracts. The trichome is made up of groupings of dead cells,
constructing the wing and ring cells of the centre of the structure.
When dry, the wing cells stand upright from the epidermal surface and
the central cells sink inwards. These help plug the gap, preventing
moisture from escaping. When you spray or dunk your plant, the
trichomes become saturated — the central cells straighten up as they
take in water. This process draws the wing down flat to the epidermis.
The trichomes dry rapidly once the source of water is removed and
the plant quickly returns to its silvery appearance. When dry, the
trichomes are white because they are filled with air. However, when
wet, the air is replaced with water and the green chlorophyll within the
tissue of the leaf is visible. The tillandsia trichome has evolved to the
most sophisticated state of any plant in the plant kingdom.
As well as water, your tillandsias need gases from the air and food
produced by chlorophyll, to enable them to grow, flower and set seed
and/or pups. The stomata are pores scattered amongst the trichomes,
which take in carbon. This is the elemental building block of life.
Tillandsias manufacture their food at night when there is less
evaporation of moisture, therefore your plants need moving air at all
times (if possible). For a tillandsia to manufacture its own food it uses
photosynthesis. This is the process by which green plants harness
and utilise radiant energy. Your plants therefore, will need adequate
amounts of light - l grow most of my plants high up under the Novalite
roof. I am slowly putting tillandsias outside, some in full sun and
others in partially shady situations -— one has to be careful not to burn
the leaves. if too much light is given, the leaves begin to yellow due to
damage to the chlorophyll.
Also, there can sometimes be too much rain, which does not give
the plant an opportunity to dry out. If the plant does not dry quickly
enough after watering/rain, then the waterlogged cells will die and the
plant will rot. Generally speaking, the more light and air your plants
have, then the more water and higher humidity they can take. Light,
water, temperature and fertiliser are the major factors that most affect
the health of the plant. Although xeric tillandsias can withstand weeks
of drought, they will do better with regular watering and misting. You
can help your plant’s growth by adding a little fertiliser to the liquid you
spray on them. I use rainwater with Rainforest Flora lnc.'s “epiphytes
delight" (17—9—26), which I spray directly onto the leaves. Other
fertilisers I use are Brigitta’s “Orchid Food” (9643) and Yates'
“Nitrosol” (8—3-6-). But you can also hose spray your plants once or
twice daily, depending on the heat of the day. A tillandsia can starve

for oxygen and suffocate if the‘leaf surface is covered with water too
long (a healthy tillandsia{ consists of 70-90% water). I find that most
tillandsias can cope with Auckland’s range of temperatures, some
needing cool nights to help induce flowering. Frost can kill, so
protection is needed in some areas during winter for most species
(frostcloth is a great help in preventing freezing).
The following is a list of some of the easier species to grow:
aeranthos...this is a stem forming species which grows roots quickly
onto the mount if secured fast. A clump develops over a few years.
bergeri...this is one of the easiest to grow and quickly forms a clump.
bulbosa...has different trichomes from other xeric tillandsias, which
enable it to grow in more shade and withstand frequent watering.
Position it upside down or horizontally to help drain off excess water.
butzii...clumps and flowers prolifically outdoors.
caput-medusae...tolerates neglect, likes high light, water & fertiliser.
crocata...has yellow flowers, is tough and drought tolerant.
duratii... can grow large and has fragrant blooms lasting a month or
more.
filifolia...unusual colour and shape, prefers cool conditions.
fuchsii...has a bulbous base and thread like blades, forms a clump.
ionantha...many varieties — a small sized and colourful plant.
juncea...mount in any position but slow growing.
pauciflora...clumps easily in a few years.
pseudobaileyi...grows well upside down
schiedeana...silvery clump of intertwined leaves.
straminea...brightly coloured inflorescence with fr_agm flowers.
stricta...grows large spikes if grown singly but striking as a clump,
especially in flower.
tectorum...very slow, low nutrient loving plant with attractive
trichomes. Infrequent water.
tenuifolia...creates a nice clump in three to four years.
usneoides...no roots, better with not too much rain.
Finally, these tillandsias may be slow to grow and small in size, but
this makes them ideal specimen plants — highly portable and ideal for
balconies or patios in today’s smaller gardens. | recommend them to
anyone as lifelong companions.
STOMATA...a minute pore in leaves through which gaseous
exchange takes place
TRICHOME...”scale”, organ of the plant’s leaves that serve for
the absorption of nutrients and water, replacing roots
EXOTIC GARDEN CURTAINS
- Dave Anderson’s collection of tillandsias
Louise Joyce
Dave Anderson is a familiar face to many Society members. As
secretary, he’s the one sitting at the top table keeping things in order
during meetings. What some members might not know, is that Dave is
a passionate collector of tillandsias and has built up a remarkable
collection over the eighteen years he’s been a member of the Society.
At firSt he was attracted by neoregelias with their colourful leaves
but after a while, he found there was an intangible “something” about
tillandsias. He liked their grey-silver foliage, their flowers, the colours
and the huge variety available. At the last count, there were 532
species of tillandsias, ranging from very large to very small, so there
are plenty to pick and choose from. But therein lies a problem for the
serious collector. How best to display the little treasures?
Dave’s solution was to create curtains hanging from rafters in the
semi-enclosed glass back verandah and from a mature, deciduous
Albizia, originally planted _to give summer shade to the patio and
barbecue area. The result is quite spectacular. Scores of tillandsia
plants mounted on driftwood, are linked by hooks and nylon fishing
line to create a living patchwork of plants that gently sway in the air
that is necessary to their survival. In summer the tree protects the
plants from high UV levels, while in winter, it lets in plenty of light.
‘ The other requirement of course is a lot of driftwood and rocks,
large and small, in interesting shapes for mounting tillandsias. Dave
collects his driftwood by the bootful when he makes trips to Napier to
visit his father-in-law and it is certainly worth the effort. He uses
mainly Liquid Nails to mount them, but warns that until they take root , *
they can shake free and sometimes plants growing outside don’t put
out as many roots because of the cooler weather. He reckons
tillandsias are fairly easy to grow; they pup regularly and within a
couple of years form handsome clumps. His clusters of Till. stricta,
both grey and green foliaged species, are an eye-catching sight and
so too is the beautiful Till. car/soniae, which produces hot pink
flowering spears and is considered one of the jewels in a tillandsia
collection.
Dave’s interest in plants began with an interest in nature when, as
a young man, he would go off on tramping expeditions. Not
surprisingly, he later developed a New Zealand native garden but
15
Photo: Win Shorrock
Photo: Laurie Dephoff
Tillandsia crocata
Tillandsia bulbosa
eventually moved to what he describes as ‘form’ species — plants that
have harder foliage. Now his quarter acre Auckland garden contains
cycads, palms and varieties of bromeliads, although tillandsias are his
favourites. Initially the bromeliads were bought to complement the
palms and cycads, but as we bromeliad lovers know all too well, he
became hooked. Dave is also a member of the Orchid Society and
has a fruit tree dripping with hanging baskets of mainly
odontoglossums that, like tillandsias, grow naturally in higher
altitudes.
Still an active tramper. Dave and his wife Joan set off three years
ago to the Americas, home of the bromeliad family. Tbev spent a
month in South America on trekking trips in Argentina, Peru and
Bolivia, tramping up to altitudes of four thousand metres plus.
“Amazing", “fantastic”, and “tremendous" is how Dave describes the
sight of masses of bromeliads of many varieties growing on trees and
rocks, along dry riverbeds and on sun-drenched slopes. It was, he
said, wonderful to observe them in their natural environment. The only
disappointment was the lack of orchids because most have been
plundered to satisfy world demand, a fate which bromeliads might
also suffer if they too become as popular!
This is where seed banks can perform a vital function and Dave
has tillandsias which have been grown this way, including a very
lovely Till. myriantha, which came from Peter Johnson in
Paraparaumu. But then there are the problem plants, which can take
twelve to fifteen years before they decide to send forth a pup. You can
however force the issue and Dave has a T. rhodocephala (Mexican,
rock growing) which he is thinking about taking to with a chisel. Such
drastic action has previously worked with T. bourgaei (see “Flower &
Then Die” in the July issue) when after destroying its growing tip, the
plant produced ten pups. .
Opposite top:
A different view (from the back cover) of the tillandsia laden Albizia.
Low down in front with green grassy leaves is the orange bracted 7'.
rodn'gueziana. As well, high up, are the broad leaves of_a scented
orchid, Coelogyne massangeana (Thailand to Indonesia). There is
usually something in colour — flowers and/or bracts - all year round.
Bottom: The long, bright red inflorescence of Vriesea elata still shows
tiny white flowers. In the background, a variety of Vriesea fosteriana
cultivars.
Photos: Marjorie Lowe
17
By and large though, Dave leaves his tillandsias to look after
themselves. However, in winter he will take in some of the more
tender species, which don’t like cold and wet winters. He also says
that although tillandsias (like succulents) can go for long periods
without water, they do need watering, even Till. tectorum which is a
dry growing plant. He waters his plants once a week in summer, and
in winter, mists the plants hanging in the verandah a couple of times a
week.
Another tip — tillandsias usually colour-up when they are about to
flower but some species can become quite brightly coloured if they’re
given warmth and light. It also helps to lightly fertilise plants and Dave
suggests using a liquid orchid mix (Schultz) of half a teaspoon to four
litres of water in a sprayer.
Don’t forget that tillandsias are air plants, and as David witnessed
in South America, they thrive when exposed to gentle, wafting
breezes, which is why Dave’s tillandsia “curtains” are beneficial, not
only to the plants but also to the garden. The forms, shapes and
colours produced by this delightful and diverse bromeliad genus will
certainly be an unusual centre of attention for interested visitors.
erik wetting
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18
ANNUAL COMPETITIVE SHOW - 2001
Schedule of classes
...Aechmea Blooming
...Aechmea Foliage
...Billbergia
...Cryptanthus
...Guzmania Blooming
...Guzmania Foliage
...Neoregelia Blooming
...Neoregelia Foliage
...Nidularium
10...Tillandsia Small Blooming
11...Tillandsia Small Foliage
12...Tillandsia Medium Blooming
13...Tillandsia Medium Foliage
14...Tillandsia Large Blooming
15...Tillandsia Large Foliage
16...Vriesea Blooming
17...Vriesea Foliage
18...Bigeneric or other genus not listed above
19...Miniature bromeliad
20...Variegated bromeliad
21 ...Novice Blooming
22...Novice Foliage
23...Dish or tray garden or novelty planting
24...Bromeliad arrangement
25...Artistic or floral arrangement
26...Decorative container
27...Hanging container
Conditions of entry
(1) Exhibitors must be financial members of the Bromeliad Society of New
Zealand.
(2) A maximum of two plants may be entered in each class.
(3) Plants must have been grown by the exhibitor for at least three months
prior to the show.
(4) Plants must be clean and healthy, free from scale and insects, and
drained of water. Pots must be clean and the potting mix free of weeds
and other plant material. Each plant should be correctly labelled where
possible with no abbreviations. Labelling is not necessary in Classes 23
to 27.
19
(5)Plants may be potted only in standard clay, terracotta, green or black
plastic or unadorned bonsai pots. Tillandsias may be mounted on driftwood
or similar.
(6m‘u w.‘.'..'"=rcial leaf shine, cream or milk may be used to enhance the
appearance of the plant. ,
(7)A pot may contain single or multiple plants, provided they are attached to
a single rootstock.
(8)A plant which has changed in shape or colour because of impending
blooming is permitted in blooming classes only, i.e. Neoregelias with
blushing centres.
(9)Tillandsias must be firmly attached to mounts and must look established.
They may be single or multiple plants within the stated measurements. The
Fiji Trophy is awarded for the Best Tillandsia.
(10)Til|andsia sizes are — small — up to 15cm (6”), medium - 15 to 30cm (6"
to 12”), large — 306m up (12” plus). These measurements exclude the
inflorescence and mount.
(11)Miniature bromeliads may be single or have multiple heads, no plant to
be more than 12.5cm high, excluding the inflorescence. Tillandsias are not
permitted in this class.
(12)Variegated bromeliad is a plant with white, pink or red longitudinal stripes
on the leaves.
(13)Novice classes are for members of less than three years standing and
who have not won 'a prize in a bromeliad show.
(14)The Olive Allan Trophy for Best of Show is chosen from Classes 1 to 20
only.
(15)Class 24, Bromeliad Arrangement, has bromeliads only and must use
9311 natural materials. Plastic pots are not allowed. The Em Bailey Trophy
for Best Arrangement is awarded to the winner of this class.
(16)Class 25, Artistic or Floral Arrangement, may use other types of plant but
must include a significant amount of bromeliad material.
(17)Class 26, Decorative Container, may contain one bromeliad only but may
have multiple heads.
(18)Class 27, Hanging Container, may contain multiple plants but of one type
only.
(19)Entries may not be removed from the show until after 4pm on Sunday.
(20)Unless mentioned above, other rules as BSI standard show. Final
decision rests with the Competition Stewards.
(21 )Entries will be accepted between 3pm and 6pm only on the Friday before
the Show.
A NEW CLASS
for the 2001 show. has been created — HANGING CONTAINER,
Class 27. The container may have as many plants as you wish but
they must be all the same type.
20
TIPS ON PREPARING PLANTS FOR SHOW
Olive Trevor Queensland
Start now to select and groom your plants for the next show.
Always select fairly mature plants with good shape, colour and
markings. Select more than you intend to exhibit. You can reject those
that don’t reach a certain standard by the time the show arrives.
Perhaps the plants you reject could be used for display plants.
Start by elevating those selected plants on upturned pots, bricks or
other suitable stands above the other plants on the benches. They will
get maximum light and will not be touched or shaded by other plants
on the bench. In this position you can watch them closely. It will be
easy for you to give them a quarter turn every few days to help the
plants to improve their shape and conformation.
Examine the pot and repot in a similar size if it is marked or
scruffy. Sometimes a different coloured pot can blend or contrast with
the colour of the plant to some advantage. Pot into a larger pot if the
plant is top heavy or out of proportion with the pot. Never do this at
the last minute or your plant could be unstable. While you are
repotting the plant, remove any bottom leaves that. are yellowing or
marked. Sometimes after you have removed leaves, the plant can be
buried a little deeper to cover part of the stem or trunk. Even if you are
not repotting, but just removing old leaves, a “top up.” to cover the
stem may be beneficial to the appearance of the plant.
Trim the leaves if you wish, but this will have to be done again at
the last minute to remove dead edges of the trim. Always copy the
shape of one of the good leaves. A pair of very sharp scissors will be
needed to do a good job. I have been told that Aloe vera rubbed on
the cut will stop it from drying and leaving those telltale edges.
Last, but not least, is cleaning the plant. So many beautiful plants
lose points because they are dirty. A good flushing from a hose to
remove debris and grime is a start — but a soft brush will be needed to
. clean high water marks and markings from salts that collect in the
plant’s cup. You must be very careful, especially if your plant has a lot
of silvery trichomes or scales. Clean your plants well in advance by all
means, but a last minute cleaning on the day of the show will always
be necessary. Make sure afl water is emptied from the cups and dry
them out with tissues or other soft material.
Finally, you must prepare the plant for transporting. Be careful
when packing as damage in transit can ruin any show plant. Turn a
21
NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
October’s meeting was held at Maureen and Keith Green,
Maungatapere, on a rather wet day. We had a very large turnout with
more new members joining. The weather didn’t deter us from
wandering around the Green’s beautiful garden. I love the little knoll
with a number of large trees — one never knows what treasures one
will find flowering amongst the many bromeliads planted there. They
also have a great collection of exotic trees, shrubs and succulents.
The bromeliad collection Maureen has in her glasshouse is
particularly stunning with all sorts of mouth-watering stuff.
'A very sad looking Neoregelia Gorrion was brought in for diagnosis
with two spindly looking pups and the leaves badly marked. It was
probably getting too much sun.
The Popular Vote was won by Colin and Iris Symonds with an
Aechmea Tam Star, with a very large, showy flower. This plant is just
growing outside under a Casuarina tree. A Neoregelia Oeser hybrid,
grown by Mike and Dorothy Logie, was 2"d— a glorious hot pink. Neo
Powder Puff, grown by myself, was 3rd and 4th was an Aechmea Black
Jack grown by Freda Nash. The Symonds had also brought in a nice
Vriesea heterostachys for identification.
Maureen was able to supply us with small seedling neoregelias to
grow on so we can see whose plant looks the best in six months time.
There are five plants of each variety so it will be very interesting to
compare. We had a discussion on the many plants in our raffles to
help newer members to distinguish the difference between aechmeas,
neoregelias, nidulariums etc. l am sure we all went home very much
the poorer moneywise, but very much the richer inspirationwise. i
know every time | go to the Greens, ljust want to give up my job, buy
two acres and landscape with bromeliads.
I ne November/December meeting will be a luncheon at Valentines
Restaurant on December 3'“, after which, we will all toddle out to
Maungatapere to the garden of a new member, Robyn Powell.
Jacqui O’Connell
(Continued from page 21)
box upside down and cut a hole in the base. This makes a good stand
to carry a plant. Space plants so they do not touch while travelling, to
prevent leaf damage. Make sure you have extra labels, in case you
lose some in transit and...don’t forget your entry forms and schedule.
Reprinted from Bromeliaceae, March/April 2000 - the Journal of
the Bromeliad Society of Queensland.
22
BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
Our October garden visit was to Gwyneth Glentworth who has
quite a large garden. Her bromeliad house was built with old
galvanised milk crates, which were stacked up quite high and gave
internal shelving as well. A most interesting morning.
The November meeting was held on a rainy day and attendance
was down. Gay Bambery, Vice-president, chaired in the absence of
Isabel Clotworthy.
The plant of the month was ‘Hanging Baskets’ and included were
Neo.’s pauciflora and ampullacea, billbergias etc. BeItha Schollum
gave a very good talk on the plants and she also showed the different
types of pots and baskets.
The display table brought fonIvard some interesting plants, which
included Niduregelia Something Special, Tillandsia bergeri, Vriesea
Velva Wurthman and Neo. Jean Evans.
Competition plants -— 1St Audrey Hewson (Guzmania WIttmackiI) 2“d
Bertha Schollum (Neo. Inferno) 3’d Kevin Schollum (Vr. Poelmannii)
Raffles were won by Gay Bambery (Aechmea Shining Light) and
Owen Bird (Neo. Fosters Giant Red).
On December 13”“, there will be a luncheon at the clubrooms.
Please bring plants for display and sales -—time 12 noon.
There will be no meeting in January but one will be held on
February 14th at 1pm (committee meeting at 12 noon).
Kevin Schollum
'BROMELIADS FOR SALE '
New Zéaland’s largest bromeiiad nursery is now open, in the
heart cf Point Wells,' ‘The Garden Village Thousands of .
bromeliads in peak condition", hundreds of varieties,'wifh more
arriving weekly.
_ Visit Mauao Flowers at 111 Point Wells Road, Warkworth. ‘
Only 50 minutes north of the Harbour. Bridge and 70 minUtes
south of Whangarei. .
Open Thursday to Sunday 9am-1 pm. . .'
: Or order the colour catalogue and free newsletter . . _
STOP PRESS - STOP PRESS -STOP PRESS — STOPPRESS
All library books must be returned at the November meeting for
stocktaking and repairs. Des Yeates (09) 8§§-6535
23
WELLINGTON TILLANDSIA STUDY GROUP
Six members met at the home of Beryl McKellar, 8a Richard
Street, Titahi Bay on September 24‘“. Six apologies were received.
The first plant displayed was T. plumosa, a silvery leafed plant with
green flowers arising from pink bracts in the centre of the foliage.
When not in flower, this plant can be confused with T. ignesiae, T.
atroviridipetala, T. mauryana or some forms of T. tectorum. T.
plumosa is identified by its having a capitate flower head, i.e.
branched stalks but round head shaped whereas T. ignesiae has a
simple flower head i.e. unbranched. A plant of T. mauryana shown,
only produces one pup each season so plant production in quantity
needs to L... by seed. This plant was grown high up in good light.
7'. belloensis, a self-fertile plant (similar to T. polystachia which has
green-yellow leaves) has dark green leaves going to mauve tones in
good light. A plant given to members last Christmas was supposedly
a cross using T. belloensis and an undisclosed mother but may prove
to be a selfing of T. belloensis.
T. geminiflora was about to flower, with deeper pink flowers on
pink bracts. One member having trouble growing this plant was
advised that it doesn’t like too much light or drying out. T. juncifolia,
with its long green leaves, was said to be a form of silver-scaled T.
juncea whose name means reedlike. T. koehresiana had a dried up
inflorescence. It was suggested that changes in temperature or long
sunny dry periods (because of the owner being away on holiday
during the good weather) might be the cause.
The conditions for flowering T. bergeri were discussed. Andrew
has four groups, each about a dozen from the same clump, growing in
four different positions: outside, a sunny and a cooler spot two metres
apart in the same greenhouse and under shadecloth. The only plants
to flower were the ones in the shadier part of the shadehouse.
Another grower flowers them in many positions except very hot
positions. The habitat for these plants is said to be in the mountains
on rocks in full sun.
Phyllis Purdie & Andrew Flower
NEXT MEETING: At Andrew Flower’s, Pukerua Bay, on November
26th at 1:30pm.
(Continued next issue)
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the
authors’ own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the
Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
24
Aechmea- aqui/ega, bromeliifolia, caste/navii, coelestis v. coelestis,
emmerichiae, fiasen', nudicaulis v. cuspidata, oriandiana, recurvata
(new type from Paraguay), spectabilis, williamsii
Alcantarea - imperialis, regina
Billbergia - vittata, zebrina
Dyckia - brevifolia, platyphylla
Edmundoa - Iindenii v. rosea
Guzmania - Iingulata v. lingulata, squaIrosa
Neoregelia - kautskyi, pascoaliana
Nidularium - amazonicum
Pitcairnia — flammea var. roezlii
Puya - coerulea v. violacea, grafii, mirabilis, venusta
Tillandsia — brachycaulos, butzii, fasciculata, fasciculata v. clavispica,
flabellata, holteana, juncea (large form), Iimbata, magnusiana,
multicaulis, myosura, pamelae, patula, pseudobaileyi, plagiotropica,
pohliana, schiedeana (small form), streptophylla, vin'diflora
Vriesea — bituminosa, gigantea, heliconioides, hieroglyphica,
modesta, platynema v. variegata, platynema (ex Trinidad), scalan‘s,
schwackeana, splendens.
New seed received from Kevin Schollum, Tauranga, Charles
E. Dills, California, Moyna Prince, Miami, Ken Woods, Australia,
Harvey Beltz, USA, Helen Carruthers, Opotiki, Bob & Lynn
Hudson, Cairns, & Dave Anderson, Gerry Stansfield, Auckland.
. The seedbank will exchange two packets of 20 seeds for one (1)
large packet of your seed. Make sure it is labelled correctly.
Please send in a large stamped envelope.
Packets (of at least 20 seeds) are 50 cents.
Limited to two packets of seed per kind per member.
ORDERS:
with large, stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to:
Gerry Stansfield, 7 Noall Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland.
Telephone (09) 834-7178
25
BASICS FOR BEGINNERS
Labelling your plants
Learning to tell bromeliads apart, especially at the beginning when
even the genera cannot be recognised, can be helped by making sure
that labels are kept in their pots and by the plants if in the garden. lf
doubtful of the accuracy of the label, please bring the plant (preferably
in flower) to the meeting or send a clear, close-up photograph to the
Journal. Even a negative response (no, it isn’t that) can be helpful.
When the names of bromeliads are printed in the Journal, the
following method is used:
GENUS Capital letter, italicised Aechmea
SPECIES italicised Aechmea recurvata
VARIETY italicised Aechmea recurvata var. ortgiesii
CULTIVAR - this can be a distinctive clone of a species
either Aechmea orlandiana ‘Mend’
or Aechmea Mend
CULTIVAR - this can be a distinctive clone of a hybrid
Neoregelia Pepper
There are other variations like the following hybrid -
Neoregeiia (carolinae x compacta) x Neo. macwilliamsii
All labels should be printed in lower case letters with the exception
of a capital letter for the genus and capital letters for each word in a
cultivar name (Billbergia Thelma Darling Hodge).
This is especially important for the following bromeliads:
Neoregelia tigrina (species) but
Neoregelia Tigrina (a cultivar of Neoregelia ampullacea)
and
Neoregelia pn'nceps (species) but
Neoregelia Princeps (a cultivar of Neoregelia carolinae)
There are acceptable abbreviations for the genus (plus var. for
variety etc) but everything else should be printed in full.
Do not use copper labels as these can damage the plant if
touching 5‘ Plastic labels using a soft lead pencil are very long lasting.
Remember, accurate labels are of ongoing importance.
26
OFFICERS
PATRON & LIFE MEMBER Mrs. Bea Hanson (09)527-6830
HISTORIAN & LIFE MEMBER Laurie Dephoff (09)527-7789
PRESIDENT Graham West (09)298—3479
VICE-PRESIDENTS Lester Ching (09)576-4595
Gerry Stansfield (09)834—7178
SECRETARY Dave Anderson (09)638-8671
TREASURER Peter Waters (09)534—5616
EDITOR Marjorie Lowe (09)376-6874
LIBRARIAN Des Yeates (09)838—6535
COMMITTEE Bev Ching (09)576-4595
Gary Cooke (09)834-6110
Brian Dawson (09)837-4598
Kevin Kilsby (09)846-8954
AUDITOR Colin Gosse '
AHC DELEGATES Patricia Sweeney, Bev Ching
LIFE MEMBERS Harry Martin
Patricia Perratt
Patricia Sweeney
SCIENTIFIC OFFICER Peter Waters
CULTIVAR REGlSTRAR Gerry Stansfield
JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, PO.
Box 91-728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
Back issues of the journal are available from the Editor for $3.00 each post-
paid.
ADVERTISING RATES
One third page
(12 — 13 lines) $6.00
BACK COVER
“Exotic Garden Curtains” - some of the wide range of tillandsias
displayed (mounted on driftwood) hanging mostly on fishing line from
a very large, mature Albizia and attached to rocks at the base of the
tree. The plants, in flower and with very colourful bracts, are bottom
left — Tillandsia parryi and to the right — Tillandsia carlsoniae. Top left
are the long flower stems of Tillandsia fasciculata.
Turning gently in the breeze, they exercise a very hypnotic effect.
Turn to page 15 for the article by Louise Joyce.
Printed by Balmoral Office Systems Ph (09)631-5693 Fax (09)623-7440
27
i 'BROMELIAD



BROMELIAD
Society of New Zealand Inc.
October 2000 Vol.40 No.10
BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was officially formed on the 28th. August, 1962.
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation, propagation and control of diseases.
(b) To provide a library for members.
(c) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to encourage the importation of new plants.
(g) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar objects.
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS
New Zealand NZ$20.00 Ordinary
                     NZ$ 5.00 Associate (same household)
Overseas NZ$25.00 Australia
                      NZ$30.00 United States and other overseas Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
FRONT COVER Ursulaea macvaughii
  Photographed in the Alexandra Headlands garden of Grace Goode. This species is one of two in a new genus described in the Journal of the Bromeliad Society, Vol. 44, No 5, 1994 and named after Ursula Baensch. Further information on page 17. Photo: Gerry Stansfield _
2
CONTENTS
4 From the President
5,6 September meeting news
7,8 Removing pups - insecticides
9-12 Canola white oil
13,14 Bea Hanson, ninety years young
15-19 A bromeliad holiday
19 The'Goode'oil
20 New Members
21 Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group
22 Seedbank
23 Northland Bromeliad Group 24-26 Pocket of perfection
 Graham West Dave Anderson Dave Anderson Rob Smythe
 Gerry Stansfield Grace Goode
 Kevin Scholium Gerry Stansfield Jacqui O'Connell
Louise Joyce
27 Officers, journal and advertising COMING EVENTS
OCTOBER
18th BOP garden visit to Gwynneth Glentworth, 157 Waikite Road.
      Welcome Bay at 10am.
24th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
        Talk: Silver/grey miniature tillandsias Monthly plant competition: Neo. marmorata & hybrids 29th Northland Bromeliad Group at the Green's at Maungakaramea - 1:30pm.
NOVEMBER
7th Deadline for copy for the November Journal.
8th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - committee at 12 noon and general meeting at 1 pm.
16th BOP garden visit to Jill Nisbet, 20 Arawata Ave. Welcome Bay 18,19th Tauranga Fuchsia Show - bromeliad display at Greerton Hall. 19th Auckland garden visits - 1pm at Win Shorrock's, 40 McDivitt Street, Manurewa, then to Gillian & Don Keesing, 6 Myers Road, Manurewa 28th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
       Plant auction and Christmas break up.
       Monthly plant competition: Bromeliad Christmas Decoration DECEMBER
13th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - 11:30am - a Christmas luncheon at the Tauranga Yacht Clubrooms.
3
FROM THE PRESIDENT
   Our Patron, Bea Hanson, celebrated her ninetieth birthday earlier this month. On behalf of all the members of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, I would like to offer our congratulations and hope that there will be many more.
   At the September meeting (another good attendance) eleven more people joined the Society and, together with four in the mail, pushed the current membership to 361.
   The Silent Auction was a great success and will be repeated at each monthly meeting.
  Lester Ching spoke about the proposed 2003 Conference, outlining progress so far. There were many questions from the floor including those from new members. The enclosed form is for the expression of interest only. No payment is required, it is not binding and is only a guide to assess possible numbers wanting to attend. Please return the form promptly, as it will help with future planning. Graham
THANK YOU
   To all those folk who kindly sent me cards when I was in hospital recently, I do give a hearty thank you.
  Our own Society, the Cactus & Succulent Society, and many others brightened my days.
   Maybe I will be back at meetings one of these days, but it is a case of being slow but sure.
                                    Bea Hanson
FROM THE EDITOR
   Due to a severe shortage of space in last month's issue, I was unable to name members (other than Cor Schipper) who had not only written and supplied photographs on request, but who had spontaneously sent in material for the Journal. Without the contributions of Graham Alderson, Laurie Dephoff, Dick Endt and Gerry Stansfield, the Journal would have been less interesting and much smaller.
   Starting this month is a small section, SNIPPETS, which I hope will encourage members to contribute 2-4 lines on any subject. Who knows, you could get carried away and write a short article!!!
4
SEPTEMBER MEETING NEWS
   Why does General Meeting night have to be so hectic? But I guess that is what it is all about when trying to have a meeting that is interesting and appealing to our ever-growing number of members.
   Peter Waters hosted the Show & Tell plants. The first plant, a Neoregelia Bullseye, had started to rot in the centre. The owner wanted to know what was causing this to happen, bearing in mind that it had been growing inside for a fortnight. It is normally the cold, wet, windy conditions in late winter and early spring in Auckland that cause some of the more tender bromeliads to rot out. But as this plant had been indoors, it was difficult to see that that was the cause here. The plant is now probably best left turned on its side to try to get the centre to dry out as much as possible to stem the fungal rot, and then hope that it sets pups. Next up was a billbergia for naming that had not flowered for four years. It was probably a Bill, distachia hybrid that would be easier to identify in flower. It was recommended that the position of the plant be changed to try to get it to flower. Len Trotman had brought in for display the true Neo. olens - a medium to small stoloniferous plant, quite different from the incorrectly named plant that was displayed last month. Following this, were three lovely red coloured neoregelias that were probably Painted Lady hybrids or maybe hybrid seeds. Unfortunately, as with most but not all neoregelia hybrids, it is impossible to name them accurately as they vary so much, depending on the light intensity etc. under which they have been grown. With this said, it is still worthwhile bringing them along to the meetings as there are always some that are identifiable. Vriesea schwackeana - why is it getting brown spots on the leaves? This species does not like the cold, particularly Auckland's wet cold, that causes this to happen. Then a billbergia hybrid obtained from Avon Ryan of Whangarei (on a bus trip) - a Billbergia amoena hybrid. After this, was a lovely Aechmea fosteriana variegata that was growing really well but was labelled Aechmea fasciata (variegata). Des Yeates brought in a Tillandsia somnians that was growing outside in bright light and was deep red in colour. These plants do very well outside all year round in Auckland and look really nice with a few years growth with all the new pups growing from each long flower spike. Gerry Stansfield brought in two billbergia hybrids - one from 35 years ago that still looked very nice and another, Bill, leptopoda x Muriel Waterman, that was a highly coloured small plant. A Tillandsia straminea out in flower (which they do at this time of the year) was
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strongly perfumed. Chris Paterson brought in a Neoregelia Takemura Princeps x concentrica that had had its centre burnt out by tanalised timber drips a year ago but now was back to full health. Lucky!!! Finally, there were some plants grown from the self-seeding of Neo. Noble Descent (o/ens 'Vulcan' x cruenta). They had not yet reached maturity but they were all quite different, which is only to be expected (as any orchid hybridist will tell you) when growing plants from hybrid seed. They will probably bear no resemblance to the parent plant that after all is a hybrid. If plants turn out to be worthwhile keeping, please give them completely different names from the parent and do destroy the 'also-rans', as they just cause more confusion.
   Lester Ching talked about the proposed Bromeliad Conference in 2003 (The Australian Bromeliad Societies hold one biennially, held in a different state each time and have offered the 2003 date to New Zealand to host). Lester said that a questionnaire will be inserted in the October Journal, asking members if they would be interested in attending a conference to be held in Auckland. At this stage, the proposed dates have not been settled, but it would probably be held early in the year over Friday, Saturday and Sunday. A sub committee has not yet been formed but will be as the work load warrants it.
COMPETITIONS
Open flowering: 1st Len Trotman - Neo. Kings Ransom, 2nd Peter Waters - Bill, amoena (carnea). Also in competition- Ae.'s pineliana & recurvata, Neo.'s compacta & Flicker, Orthophytum gurkenii, Vriesea Christiane.
Open foliage: 1st Peter Waters - Neo. Royal Hawaiian, 2nd Len Trotman - another Neo. Kings Ransom. Also Neo.'s Samba, Royal Burgundy, Muscat and Painted Lady F2.
Tillandsia: 1st Brian Dawson - T. aeranthos x, 2nd Len Trotman - T. oerstediana. Also bulbosa x, cardenasii, caerulea, ionantha, novakii, seleriana and stricta.
Plant of the month - Aechmea orlandiana and hybrids: 1st Win
Shorrock - Ae. Ensign, 2nd Lester/Bev Ching - Ae. orlandiana. Also Ae. Bert (variegata) and Ae. orlandiana x recurvata.
Novice flowering: 1st Judy Graham - Till, punctulata 2nd Chris Paterson - Ae. Aztec Gold.
Novice foliage: 1st Kevin Kilsby - Vr. fosteriana (rubra) 2nd Chris Paterson - Neo. Beta x Magnifica.
Best plant of the month: Len Trotman with Neo. Kings Ransom. Congratulations to all the winners. Dave Anderson
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BASICS FOR BEGINNERS
September Talk
REMOVING PUPS Dave Anderson
   Before removing pups from a bromeliad, there is a major decision to be made. That is, whether to remove the pups at all or just let the plant dump up. By and large, the more massive bromeliads are seen at their best when grown on as individual plants whereas the smaller species and stoloniferous plants look better grown as a clump. There are other reasons to take pups off such as - sharing plants with friends, trading and selling surplus plants or growing a specimen plant for competitive shows. Another major advantage of growing on from pups is that, while a plant grown from seed takes 3-5 years at best to grow to maturity, some well cared for pups taken off in mid spring can quite often reach adulthood in one year.
   The first basic rule when taking off pups is to have patience and remove pups only when they are between 1/3 and 1/2 the size of the mature plant. Pups taken off too small sit and sulk for up to a couple of years before they start growing.
   The tools you will need for the job are:
A pair of secateurs.
A waterproof marking pen to write the name of the plant on the underside of one of the lower leaves.
A sharp knife - also helpful is a serrated knife for taking off larger pups.
Some flowers of sulphur or fungicide powder to put on the plant wound although some people find this unnecessary.
Pup removal falls basically into three different categories:
  The easiest are the stoloniferous plants and many of the neoregelia family that form a stub out from the parent plant. It is just a matter of cutting the offshoot off as close as you can to the parent and in the case of stoloniferous plants shorten the runner as it serves no further purpose.
   Perhaps easier than the above plants, are the ones that grow the pups at the base of the plant with very little attachment to the parent (some tillandsias do this). Roots can quite often be seen growing directly from the pups. These pups can be simply removed by a simple twisting motion when holding the pup between the thumb and forefinger.
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   The third and most difficult group is from the guzmania, vriesea and tillandsia genera, where the pups grow along the axis of the plant. To remove these pups, one has to use a very sharp serrated knife or sometimes I find a sharp 20-25mm carpenter's chisel helpful, to try and take the pup off as close to the parent as possible.
   After taking the pup off, naming it and covering the wound with fungicide where apprqpriate, place the pup in a dry place (such as an empty plant pot under cover) to allow the wound to callous over for the next two weeks or so. Once the wound has healed, pot up in the usual way.
Insecticides
   In New Zealand we are rather fortunate in that, as all bromeliads are exotic to our country, there are no natural insect or animal predators. However, the plants are occasionally attacked by - wetas that chew great chunks out of the sides of the leaves and flower spikes - slugs and snails that make an absolute mess of the thinner leafed plants and the ever-present scale. For the slugs and snails, I use any of the proprietary products on the market, v#iich when used regularly, keeps them and their damage to an absolute minimum. As all oil based products (including insecticides in emulsion, along with copper-based fungicides) are lethal to bromeliads these obviously cannot be used to control the scale etc mentioned above. I have used, with great success, the systemic insecticide Orthene (the powdered form), to eliminate scale and also other insects including wetas. Another organic based insecticide that I have only recently started using, is 'Beat the Bugs' - containing pyrethrum, hot chili and garlic - that not only kills insects, but appears to eliminate scale. This product is available at most garden centres and is manufactured in Western Australia. Do take all the necessairy precautions when using any insecticide, even the pyrethrum based fly sprays that are all poisonous to humans as well as insects.
   The canola oil/vinegar and the canola oil/detergent combinations (described by Rob Smythe in the following article) are alternatives that are very eco friendly for controlling flyspeck scale and mosquitoes. I personally have not used these so cannot comment on their effectiveness.
   In conclusion, I try to restrict the use of insecticides to as little as possible as tthey have such a detrimental effect on the environment.
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CANOLA WHITE OIL Rob Smythe Townsville
"Use a white oil? Never! All the books can't be wrong".
   The story of canola versus mineral white oil with plants parallels the difference between butter (animal) and polyunsaturated margarine (vegetable) for humans. In both cases they look much the same but they function quite differently.
How to make it?
   I can honestly say I have only used measurements once and that was to have something to write in this section. It does not matter much what quantities you use. It is just how much you leave on the plant that is important.
Canola white Oil
750 ml Canola oil, 3 tablespoons detergent and 1250 ml water. I usually mix this in a 2lt milk bottle and shake it violently. You can use a blender. Let the white oil emulsion rise to the top. Put a small hole in the bottom of the milk bottle and carefully open the lid. Drain off all the excess water and detergent, then put the white oil into a new milk bottle. You will find it fairly quickly separates back into oil and water layers. It should be used fairly promptly when fresh. You will find with time that the white oil left behind will stay as an emulsion longer and longer. This can be explained chemically but not here. The message is - make big batches and store it. Each time you use it shake it well.
   I have only used Sill and Alginox detergents. My tests have shown these are not phytotoxic at low concentrations. My experiments have shown that 3ml of Alginox per 5 litres of water is OK for the smallest plants. My studies were done growing orchids in flasks and actually growing them in the solution. As an aside I have found that Alginox, when used to kill algae, is more effective when used at a higher concentration than this, but be sure to wash it off after an hour or two in contact with the algae. You will know if it works by the stench of dead algae. Algae are very small and have a very high surface to mass ratio and hence take up toxic levels much quicker than other plants.
Canola White Oil Spray
300ml canola white oil, 300ml vinegar or ammonia and 4lt water. The vinegar brand does not matter.
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   Don't mix ammonia and vinegar together as one destroys the activity of the other. Remember when plants (neoregelias) are coloured up to use vinegar (actually enhances red colour and cleans calcium deposits off the leaves as well). When plants are in their greener stage, use the ammonia. I often use the vinegar spray just to brighten up the plants when I am expecting bromeliad visitors. The other positive thing is that vinegar prevents mosquitos. Strangely, adult larvae don't appear bothered too much but immature larvae don't survive.
How To Use Canola Spray?
   During overcast or wet weather, spray on the plants. If you must use it during fine weather, spray it on in the evening. After a few hours (or in the morning in the latter case), use a strong jet of water to wash the bulk off. Be sure to wash out the vase. Very thin film is safe for neoregelias in Townsville. Now during the next couple of days, moisture and UV light will degrade the canola oil. Some of it will be turned into weak acids that will dissolve in water, but a fine layer of white wax can form which lifts off in a day or so. This wax has what we chemists call carboxylic acid groups which also make it slightly soluble in water
   So if you have done things correctly, you have put a small film of oil over the plant, softening and smothering the scale. Whereas paraffin oils (garden white oil) will do the same but stay in place, blocking the trichomes (scurf) and the underlying breathing /transpiration apparatus of the plant (stomata), preventing the taking up of moisture and nutrients. Bromeliads have most of their stomata on the underside of the leaf, so special care should be taken when spraying there. Plants should not be thickly closed in as to exclude light from this area.
   I use preventative spraying in autumn and spring and I only spray the top surface. If I find a plant subsequently showing scale on the top surface, I remove it and spray it while upside down as well as on top. One good spray is usually enough. Usually, I return them directly back to the collection. If I acquire a badly infested plant I quarantine it until I am sure it is OK to add to the collection.
What can go wrong?
   (1) Too much canola oil can lead to change in chemistry. Instead of getting a soluble, decomposition product, which of course washes away, you form what we chemist call a condensed aldehyde polymer
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which can form a filter under such conditions. This is a reason boiled linseed is used in paint. This polymer will coat the leaf like a coat of paint that has not set. The plant can smother. If it is not too thick, black sooty mould will form on it and destroy it as, unlike paraffin oil, this polymer has oxygen in its make-up and so forms food just like honeydew does from aphids (which we know promotes sooty mould). If you find a build-up of sticky stuff or the leaves go black, you need to scrub the plants with detergent. Best to avoid the problem by using a thin film, even if you have to treat the plants a second time. As you could surmise, I made this error once when I noticed soft scale on Billbergia Kyoto. These plants were on my expendable list, as they were by-products of a development of a new sport that I am working on. They were left with a thick coat and I explained the consequences above. The outcome was that they all lived and did not lose their leaves but they only grew to about half the size when compared with another unsprayed and clean group. Interestingly, the white wax deposits left on the leaves now feel rough and can be rubbed off with the fingers. I don't think it would be impairing gas and moisture movements but would be cutting down photosynthesis.
   (2) As mentioned above, white deposits can occur on leaves just like the dead algal deposits you get when the algae is killed with an algaecide like Alginox. The dead plant life is carried up the leaf as the leaf grows and out of the water, forming a white deposit. If you do not wash the vase after spraying with canola oil, a similar white, thick layer of wax forms and is carried out of the water looking exactly like dead algae. It is not harmful but looks crook.
   (3) New leaves emerging from the water can be damaged by the oil if the oil is left in the vase. Anyone spraying insecticides knows the problem well. Insecticides come dissolved in things like xylene, which makes a milky white emulsion in water but after spraying on bromeliads, the oil base rises and settles on the water surface and wrecks new growth. Inner leaves topple over, bending at a soft, near transparent line near the water" edge. If you are tempted to add insecticide, which I believe is unnecessary, be doubly careful to avoid this problem.
   (4) You may think, as with paraffin based white oils, that the plants should be put in the shade. No, they must be left in bright light to degrade the canola oil. Paraffin blocks transpiration and, when left in sunlight, the plant burns. Hence you keep them in the shade so they
won't stress. Using canola in the shade is the same as using paraffin and hence not recommended.
What additives can we use?
   I have mentioned the dangers of insecticides. I would limit additives, when treating scale, to ammonia and vinegar. These add a corrosive agent to attack the scale. If you have animals that drink from the vases, these household agents are safer and also safer for you than insecticides. During the wet season in the tropics, I may add a systemic (water soluble oil free) fungicide and/or Alginox (a bacteria and algaecide) to stop my vrieseas rotting and toppling over. Living in the tropics, I only use the vinegar during spring when the scale is at the crawler stage and more vulnerable. The crawlers appear again in autumn and then I use the stronger agent, ammonia. Remember, don't use the ammonia when your plants are colouring up or the fertiliser value of the ammonia might make the plants green up. Alginox, vinegar or ammonia also double as mosquito inhibitors.
How can I be sure there is enough UV light to break down the canola oil?
   This is simple. Spray some of the oil on water in a saucer and set it beside your plants. It should break down and go white if the UV is doing its job. In Townesville, which is infamomous for having the highest skin cancer incidence in the world (as a result of the large number of days of sunlight), the oil breaks down in two days. I would suggest in addition, that you experiment on a few plants. What I have heard from the south so far has only been good. I might add that I only work with neoregelias. Soft leafed plants, like guzmanias growing in the shade, would need considerable testing. Scale has not bothered these yet in my collection.
* Rob Smythe gave an address at the Tenth Australian Bromeliad Conference (Cairns - August 1999) entitled Growing Neoregelias in the Dry Tropics. (BSNZ Journal - April 2000) This subject was mentioned there briefly and has now been expanded into the above form. For those interested in the chemistry involved, the whole article Canola White Oil - "Oils aint Oils Soil!" is on -
Website - http://fcbs.org/articles/canola.htm
* 'Liquid Laundry' is an additive free detergent available from Eco Store in Auckland. Other brand names, like Alginox, are not available here and it will take research to find a suitable replacement.
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A*
NINETY YEARS YOUNG!
BEA (TRIX) HANSON
PATRON
CO - FOUNDER OF THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND INC
LIFE MEMBER
Neoregelia Bea Hanson
BEA 'TRIX' HANSON — Patron, President, Secretary, Committee Member and especially Editor. Bea has done them all. For 26 years she edited the Newsletter/Journal. When members were tardy with their contributions, apart from taking them to task, she would sit down and write one of her amusing anecdotes to fill the space. Below, a few up to date contributions.
.....I have happy memories of my 30 years plus friendship with 'Trix',
travelling and holidaying together. My pet name for her is "Speedy Gonzales" - quick in motion and comments. I was always trailing behind. Good luck Trix. Who knows, I may catch up yet!
.....I often have people coming to my place who say that some years
ago they bought some bromeliads from a very kind lady on Mt. Wellington Highway. "Would that be Bea Hanson?" I ask. "Yes" they'd say, "Is she still growing bromeliads?" - "Yes, of course she is -bromephiles never give up!"
.....I have known 'Trix' Hanson since the 50's when we were both in
the Cactus & Succulent Society. I remember when she was chairing a meeting, John Davy was telling me one of his jokes and suddenly -dead silence. 'Madam' had stopped the meeting - two red faces and laughs all round. After all these years, she is still as sharp as ever with a sense of fun and enjoys a good joke. All the best and happy days Trix.
.....I have a photograph (somewhere) of five of us, sitting out in Bea
and Snow's back garden (under a sun umbrella with tables and chairs), having Christmas dinner in the Auckland sunshine. Ever thoughtful, she rounded up those who would have been having it alone and made it a fun occasion.
.....On my potting bench I have an "In memoriam" box containing
plastic tags of bromeliads I have loved and lost. Strangely enough, not one tag is written by a well-known bromeliad fancier from Mt Wellington Highway. Quite a few bootloads of bromeliads have made their way from that garden to mine. They must be a hardy breed, just like their green fingered cultivator. Thanks Bea.
.....In all the years of attending conferences in Australia and the
United States, we kept meeting people who asked after Bea. She is held in much esteem and it is regretted that she no longer travels.
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A QUEENSLAND BROMELIAD HOLIDAY
Gerry Stansfield
   If Auckland is known as the City of Sails, then surely Brisbane must be called the City of Lights, as at night from the Southbank, the city turns into a fairyland, a picture post card of coloured lights. But we should start at the beginning...
   Our first Monday was planned as a free day in Brisbane, with an early morning flight arriving at 9:15am local time. We had planned to visit the Southbank in the morning and the Botanical Gardens after lunch. Well, they say that even the best-laid plans can go astray and ours were no exception. The Mercure Hotel would not let us into our rooms until 2pm, but after some badgering, said if we came back at 1pm they would see what they could do. So as we could not stray far, we decided to walk to the city and find a cafe for lunch. On our way we passed King George Square and City Hall, and I (always with an eye for bromeliads) noticed a large bromeliad garden, so after lunch we returned to the square.
   King George Square is a very popular lunchtime place, with fishponds, fountains and large, raised, square gardens of palms and bromeliads. The plants are all well established. There were clumps of Portea petropolitana, Aechmea lueddemanniana var. rubra and Aechmea mexicana in flower with huge spikes full of white berries (these were the largest plants I have ever seen - some were more than a metre across). Both the last two species were richly coloured in Brisbane's sunny conditions. There were many neoregelias (probably hybrid) that I did not know, but I did recognise Neo. Aussie Dreams, planted in very large groups and also Billbergia pyramidalis 'Kyoto'. There was some damage to the plants but I suppose that is to be expected in a public garden. Generally the plants looked healthy and in good condition.
  The bromeliads were complemented by Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Golden Cane Palm) and Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Bangalow Palm). This was truly a lovely, tranquil place to sit and soak up the beauty plus watch the Ibis birds all fighting for lunchtime scraps. In the Queen Street Mall, we saw more bromeliads - this time lots of vrieseas and guzmanias in raised beds looking beautiful.
   Unable to enter our hotel room until 2pm we decided, after freshening up, to forgo the Botanical Gardens and to spend what time remained (before darkness at 5pm) on the Southbank. (Turn to p. 18)
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IN GRACE GOODE'S GARDEN
Front cover Ursulaea macvaughii
   This bromeliad comes from Jalisco, Mexico and is epiphytic at 5-600m.This is quite a large plant and its tank-rosette has a large water storage capacity. It would make a good home for frogs. It stands full sun and requires very fast drainage.
   "It takes three years from pollination to ripe seeds and it is only then that the few offshoots develop. They need another five years until they flower". Baensch & Baensch.
Top opposite: Androlepis skinneri
   A large handsome plant indigenous to Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. It is lithophytic (on rocks) or epiphytic in forests, usually forming large masses at altitudes from sea level to 100m, and often growing very close to the shore line.
   It has stiff spiny leaves, 60-90cm long. When grown in sun the leaves turn bright cerise/rose. The bracts and flowers are pale, creamy yellow. According to the Baensches, this plant is dioecious and they were unable to locate any female plants in Costa Rica.
Bottom opposite: Neoregelia hybrids
Top row - left to right:
White Lady, Fond Memory (named in honour of a dear friend who died), White Lady.
Second row - left to right:
Red variegated Neo. x MacCushla, Tangerine (USA), Bob's Baby, Painted Delight (USA), Glorious.
Third row - left to right:
Large pink/red spotted Neo. x Yamamoto Grande (USA), large dark Neo. x Africa, Yamamoto Grande, Lovely Lady.
Fourth row:
Africa (2)
Photos: Gerry Stansfield
OBITUARY
   Frank Danks, a foundation member of the Bromeliad Society, died in late September. Although not a member of late, many of the older members will remember him as a very colourful character.
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This is a sixteen-hectare recreational parkland built in 1988 for the Brisbane Centenary. It is located on the Brisbane River, overlooking the city. Birds and butterflies are housed in tropical gardens at the Gondwana Wildlife Sanctuary. There are also picnic areas, restaurants and shopping. The Southbank is a must to visit. Walking back to the Mercure along the Riverside Promenade, gives an all-inspiring view of the city. With all the lights, it really is a spectacular sight at night. Even the footpaths and the buttress walls have very small lights set into the concrete.
   Each of the trips (to Fraser Island, the Sunshine Coast and the hinterland) over the next three days went north on the Bruce Highway, allowing us to perfect the turnoff to Maroochydore, Mooloolabar and Alexandra Headlands. It was at Alexandra Headlands that we were hoping to meet a very special lady. We had not been able to ring Grace Goode earlier, so it was not until we were on the road to Maroochydore that I was able to phone and yes, Grace was at home and would love to see us.
   From our first meeting, Margaret and I felt at home with Grace -her knowledge and understanding of bromeliads is abounding. At every remark, "Gosh, that's beautiful!" & "Wow - look at that!", out would come the Grace Goode black bible to give you the exact cross, parentage and date. It is amazing that she has perfected and hybridised so many of these beautiful plants, each one a real gem. I do remember some one saying (perhaps it was Derek Butcher?) that they thought that we have gone as far as we can with variegated bromeliads. Well let me tell you, we saw and photographed some of Grace's new F2 and F4 variegated hybrids, and if Mulford Foster thought Neoregelia Fosperior Perfection was his greatest achievement, then it is a shame that he is not alive today to see Grace Goode's new hybrids.
   In this special garden, there is a myriad of treasures. I was so pleased to see the giant Aechmea blanchetiana. I was given a small plant of this by Avon Ryan on our first visit there in 1998 and learned that the original plant came from Grace Goode. Other plants to see were - a very large Ursulaea macvaughii (front cover) and a beautiful plant of Androlepis skinneri (page 14). As you can see, this plant was also in flower and the leaf colouring was far superior to the Baensch illustration. If these plants set seed, Grace is intending to pass on the seeds to other Societies - these are both relatively rare bromeliads. Among the many neoregelias, we saw many special ones- the new jet black plant and the small pigmies (many of them Fireball and
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ampullacea hybrids). How attractive they will look grown on in baskets. The new neoregelia F2 and F4 variegated hybrids had me spellbound. Moving on through this bromeliad wonderland, we saw guzmanias, including a number of Grace's own hybrids, planted under a very large Calliandra haematocephala (Red Pompom tree), giving the plants excellent shading under the hot Queensland sun.
   As with all of us, time ticks by when talking about our beloved bromeliads, especially in the company of such a warm and charming person as Grace Goode. But we had a long drive ahead of us so we bid farewell with a promise to return one day.
THE 'GOODE' OIL
• I can spend all day in the garden, I hate housework.
• After removing pups, leave them for at least 24 hours to 'heal'.
• Never pot a pup unless it has roots. Have a place where they can be together, whether it is a garden area or a box, filled with sand or perlite to get started.
• I don't fertilise anymore. I catch rainwater for my pups and seedlings.
• When I cut plants for Cairns I tell them how lucky they are, going up there to the warmth and sunshine.
• Talk to your plants, they only answer back with more beauty.
• Monstera deliciosa is good for the body. As you get older your muscles weaken.
   Reprinted from the Cairns Bromeliad Study Group Inc. March/April 2000
BROMELIADS FOR SALE
   New Zealand's largest bromeliad nursery is now open, in the heart of Point Wells, 'The Garden Village'. Thousands of bromeliads in peak condition, hundreds of varieties, with more arriving weekly.
   Visit Mauao Flowers at 111 Point Wells Road, Warkworth. Only 50 minutes north of the Harbour Bridge and 70 minutes south of Whangarei.
Open Thursday to Sunday 9am-1 pm.
Or order the colour catalogue and free newsletter.
NEW MEMBERS
Anderson-Smith, Liz, Box 152, Silverdale.
Bartholomew, Ilona, 109a Linwood Road, New Lynn, Ak.
Dale, Angela, 35 Pacific Parade, Whangaparoa, Hibiscus Coast. Dougherty, Merv & Lois, Box 135, Wellington.
Groenewegen, Ann, 50 Hattaway Avenue, Bucklands Beach, Ak. Lavarro, Becky, 9 Brigantine Drive, Birkenhead, Ak.
Livingstone, Marion, 24b Kauri Glen Road, Northcote, Ak.
Mills, Janice & Barnes, Marion, 1/33 Wainui Avenue, Pt Chevalier, Ak.
Nichol, Melody & Jane, 225 Red Hills Road, Kaupaki.
van Walen, June & Kees, 30 Suncrest Drive, West Harbour, Ak.
WORKSHOP FOR MEMBERS
Free tuition - learn how to take pups off and pot them up Bring your plants (with pups on!) and share ideas
WHERE: Des Yeates - 158a Henderson Valley Road
                                Telephone (09) 838-6535 WHEN: Sunday 29th October at 1:30pm
plus Brian Dawson will talk on growing & looking after tillandsias
SNIPPETS
.....The door prizes for the September meeting went to Owen Bird,
Becky Lavarro and Wilma Fitzgibbons. The special raffle was won by June Sly and the Conference 2003 raffle by Gary Edwards.
.....Brian Dawson will give a talk on silver and grey miniature
tillandsias at the October meeting.
.....On Friday, 6th October, on Maggie's Garden Show, Maggie Barry
demonstrated how to attach bromeliads to treefern sections, using a narrow strip of plastic netting. Great publicity!
.....'The Generation Gap' would appear to be absent from the
Bromeliad Society of NZ. In February this year, our youngest member, Tristan Melling, joined aged nine. Eighty years separate our oldest member, Bea Hanson, and our youngest (bromaholics both). Match that!!!
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BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
   The attendance was down a little at the October meeting as it was a very grey, wet day.
   We had a very good display at the Tauranga Orchid Show late in September. It drew a lot of attention.
  Tiilandsia - Plant of the month. Jo Elder and Audrey Hewson gave talks on their growth habits and growing conditions. Among the plants were Tillandsias aeranthos, cacticola, leiboldiana, /eonamiana, recurvifolia, tectorum and viridiftora.
   On the display table were Aechmea recurvata 'Tokuri', Neoregelias Fall in Love (with a bright centre), Meyeindorffii, Oeser's Wine Red, and ampullacea, Vriesea simplex.
  The competition was won by Jo Elder - Neomea Strawberry. 2nd was Isabel Clotworthy - Neo. Fall in Love and 3rd equal were Audrey Hewson - Neo. Amazing Grace and Kevin Scholium Aechmea Mirlo (variegata) Also entered - a Neo. Meyendlorffii with dark green leaves and a brilliant red centre. Interestingly, both Neo. Meyendorffii were bought at the same time from the same souroe, with the one on the display table being much paler in all respects.
  Raffle - 1st Pat Smith (Aechmea Friederike) and 2nd Ngaire Thomas (Aechmea recurvata 'Tokuri').
   Some dates to note include a garden visit on November 16lth to Jill Nisbet at 20 Arawata Avenue, Welcome Bay at 10am.
   We have been asked to put on a display at the Tauranga Fuchsia Show, November 18t,n & 19th, at the Greerton Hall.
  December 13th - a Christmas luncheon will be held at the Tauranga Yacht Club at approximately 11:30am - bring plants for show and sales,
   January 17th - a garden visit to Isabel Clotworthy at 223 Range Road, Papamoa at 11am. Bring your lunch.
Kevin Scholium
Next meeting:
November 8th Committee at 12 noon, General 1pm.
Plant of the month for November - Hanging baskets
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the authors' own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
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 Aechmea - aquilega, bromeliifolia, castelnavii, coelestis v. coelestis,
 emmerichiae, fraseri, nudicaulis v. cuspidata, orlandiana, recurvata
 var?, recurvata (new type from Paraguay), spectabilis, williamsii
 Alcantarea - regina, imperialis
 Billbergia ■ vittata, vittata hybrid, zebrina
 Dyckia - brevifolia, platyphylla
 Edmundoa - lindenii v. rosea
 Guzmania - lingulata (was from variegata but will only germinate as v. lingulata)
 Neoregelia - ampullacea (dark form), kautskyi, pascoaliana Nidularium - amazonicum, innocentii v. innocentii Pitcairnia - carinata, flammea v. roezlii, imbricata, tabuliformis Puya - coerulea v. mirabilis, grafii, mirabilis, venusta Tillandsia - brachycaulos, butzii, fasciculata v. clavispica, hotteana, juncea (large form), limbata, magnusiana, multicaulis, myosura, pamelae, plagiotropica, pohliana, schiedeana (small form), streptophylla, vahabilis, viridiflora
 Vriesea - bituminosa, gigantea, heliconioides, hieroglyphica, modesta, platynema v. variegata, platynema (ex Trinidad), scalaris, schwackeana, splendens Germination is good on all seed.
    New seed received from Charles E. Dills, California, Moyna Prince, Miami, Ken Woods, Sydney, Harvey Beltz, Louisiana, Helen Carruthers, Opotiki, Bob & Lynn Hudson, Cairns, Dave Anderson and Gerry Stansfield, Auckland.
    The seedbank is once again looking healthy with fresh seed coming in almost weekly. We now have some very interesting species like the two alcantareas, Vriesea splendens & Ae. emmerichiae so I would urge you to send for some seed while it is fresh. It is fun to grow, plus you are extending your collection. If you need help in growing, just write to me. Naturally we are always looking for seed especially tillandsias. (Continued opposite page)
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NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
   The September meeting was held at Freda Nash's home unit at Kensington. It is amazing what she fits into a small town garden. A fine collection of bromeliads under, on and hanging from, a very old kowhai tree, which is covered with glorious yellow flowers at the moment. The flowers fall over everything, including the cups of the bromeliads. Freda has removed her birdfeeder from the tree as the sparrows were making an awful mess, leaving their calling cards all over her prized bromeliads. She also has a huge collection of succulents, so those of us who are partial to a succulent or two purchased quite a number.
   Maureen Green brought along a collection of stunning guzmanias in flower and there was a discussion on the growing requirements for these beauties. Further discussion was on removing pups from the mothers - some are easier than others. (There were looks of disbelief when I told them I had removed pups from a very large Vriesea hieroglyphics a couple of years ago with a tomahawk!!!) I have a horrible feeling I shall be performing the same operation again this year, as my biggest hieroglyphica in a large pot has seven pups this year, all firmly attached to "mummy".
   Colin Symonds, with a Tillandsia leonamiana won the popular vote. Freda and myself were second equal with Vriesea fosteriana (rubra) and Neoregelia Royal Cordovan respectively. Third equal were Viv Shortland - Aechmea fasciata and Mac McLeod - Aechmea pimenti-velosoi (possibly Pie in the Sky - Derek Butcher, see NZ Bromeliad Journal June 1998).
  Next meeting will be held at Maureen & Keith Green's at Maungakaramea on Sunday, 29th October at 1:30pm. Please bring a raffle prize, a plate and a big box to take home all the plants we will find that we can't possibly live without. Baked Beans for dinner again!! Jacqui O'Connell_
• The seedbank will exchange two packets of 20 seeds for one (1) large packet of your seed. Make sure it is labelled correctly.
• Please send in a large stamped envelope.
• Packets (of at least 20 seeds) are 50 cents.
• Limited to two packets of seed per kind per member.
ORDERS:
with large, stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to:
Gerry Stansfield, 7 Noall Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland. Telephone (09) 834-7178
23
POCKET OF PERFECTION - the garden of Willem and Miep Vermeer
Louise Joyce
   After thirty-one years living on a quarter acre property in Mt Eden, Miep and Willem shifted to a new subdivision in Howick. They left behind a mature, well-established garden with water features and rock outcrops. Their new home was on a small, barren, part waterlogged, clay section. (For details see the Journal, Sept 1998, Vol. 38 No 8)
   That was almost exactly three years ago. Today a first time visitor has difficulty imagining what it looked like then because the Vermeers have turned their handkerchief size backyard into a blissful retreat packed with a wonderful variety of plants and trees. It is an inspiring example of how to create a low maintenance garden and how to make the most of a very small section.
   The initial work, and the hardest, took about three months. The section is mostly yellow clay and drains had to be dug to reduce the water problem. The other priority was to build the urgently needed shade house for sun-shy bromeliads transported from their other garden. Then Willem could turn his attention to the garden proper. He hadn't a clue what exactly he was going to do. The only thing he knew for certain was that digging out solid clay was absolutely not an option and that the garden would have to be raised.
   He drew on the scenic beauty of the Bay of Islands for inspiration and paced his small section (10m x 11m) working out where he wanted his little islands and how they were going to be shaped. Positioning was important as the L-shaped house virtually encloses the backyard so the garden is a focal point. It can be seen from the kitchen, as well as from the dining room and master bedroom, both of which have floor-to-ceiling sliding glass doors.
   Despite the best intentions there was a bit of spadework. Willem dug some shallow excavations for the pond site but only as far as the clay and then raised the perimeter. He used turf from the pond site and the shadehouse floor to shape his islands and then edged it with volcanic rocks, laboriously brought from the old house over three months. He carted in ten cubic metres of topsoil to fill the islands and now tops it up with compost from one of his three bins.
24
Like other gardeners we've spoken to, Willem is keen on rocks. As he says, they not only keep the soil in place, they also produce a lot of heat that helps the plants during the night when temperatures cool down.
   First to be planted were the vital shade trees. The section had one small Sophora tetraptera (Kowhai) tucked in a corner, but Willem has now added a selection of natives - Corynocarpus laevigatus (Karaka) to attract birds, Alectryon excelsus (Titoki), which he'll keep trimmed, and Meryta sinclairii (Puka). For good measure there is an evergreen elder, a lemon, and two deciduous trees have been planted to cast summer shade over the dining room and bedroom terraces. In winter the bedroom terrace is sunny and sheltered, ideal for coffee breaks.
   Then came the fun bit - the planting. It's a real mixed bag as some plants were chosen for their shapes and foliage for Miep's floral art, while others, such as the antique ixia with its green flowers, were planted because of their beauty.
   In went several agaves, which are now quite large and very eyecatching, a Beaucarnea recurvata (Ponytail), and several Archontophoenix cunninghamii (Bangalow palm), although he now wishes he'd planted Arch, alexandrae (King palm). He feels their leaves have more flexibility in strong winds, unlike the Bangalow which gets rather straggly after a buffeting. Overlooking a corner of the pond, is a Xeronema callistemon (Poor Knights Lily) that, at the moment, has about a dozen dazzling red flower spikes. There is a small leafed version of the Strelitzia (Bird of Paradise), two varieties of Cyperus (Papyrus), and there are heaps of varieties of succulents (the front garden is a solid mass of them, including several Jade tree species), and of course bromeliads.
GARDEN VISITS
   On Sunday, 19th November at 1pm members are invited to visit the garden of Win Shorrock at 40 McDivitt Street, Manurewa (Phone 267-6479)...Followed by a visit to the garden of Gillian and Don Keesing at 6 Myers Road, Manurewa (Phone 266-8681)
   Both gardens are well worth viewing and both will have plants for sale.
Please bring your own cups.
25
  Willem has been growing bromeliads for some 35 years after a former Society member, Hazel Jack, sparked his interest. She gave Willem a Neoregelia concentrica, two hybrids and a Neoregelia carolinae tricolor. Over the years, those plants multiplied in his garden but it wasn't until Willem retired that he became a member himself six years ago. He also served on the committee, but sadly, ill health has forced him to give that up.
   His personal preference is the vriesea genus, which he describes as user friendly ... no long, sharp, prickly bits. He is also keen on neoregelias (a magnificent Neo. Thunderbird occupies a prime spot) and he has some beautiful clumps of tillandsias, as well as various bromeliads attached to posts, hanging in baskets and in pots. Some of these pots, incidentally, are Willem's own work. He uses a mixture of two parts pumice sand, two parts cement, and one part peat to make hypertufa pots that not only look great but also give enormous personal satisfaction.
   Willem has certainly achieved his goal to create a low maintenance garden. There is not much weeding and most of the plants look after themselves - the succulents and bromeliads certainly do. The only on-going crusade is the constant battle against snails and Willem estimates he spends about $80 a year on bait. The only slight problem at the moment is deciding whether or not to get rid of the small grass strip bordering part of the garden.
   Art lovers will know that the Dutch master, Jan Vermeer, was one of the great painters of the seventeenth century. Perhaps he is Willem's ancestor because our modern day artist, although he didn't use oils, has certainly created his own masterpiece.
BACK COVER
Top:
   Looking from the dining room terrace, across the garden to the southern boundary. The wooden fences are now almost invisible and the roof of the next door house is fast disappearing behind the canopy of palms and trees.
Bottom:
   The rocks at the western end of the pool are planted with clumps of Ae. gamosepala 'Lucky Stripes' and Ae. weilbachii, and specimens of Neo. carolinae, Neo. Thunderbird and Vriesea hieroglyphica etc plus ferns and begonias.
Photos: Marjorie Lowe
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OFFICERS
PATRON & LIFE MEMBER HISTORIAN & LIFE MEMBER PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENTS
SECRETARY
TREASURER
EDITOR
LIBRARIAN
COMMITTEE
AUDITOR AHC DELEGATES LIFE MEMBERS
SCIENTIFIC OFFICER CULTIVAR REGISTRAR
Mrs. Bea Hanson Laurie Dephoff Graham West Lester Ching Gerry Stansfield Dave Anderson Peter Waters Marjorie Lowe Des Yeates Bev Ching Gary Cooke Brian Dawson Kevin Kilsby Colin Gosse Patricia Sweeney, Harry Martin Patricia Perratt Patricia Sweeney Peter Waters Gerry Stansfield
(09)527-6830
(09)527-7789
(09)298-3479
(09)576-4595
(09)834-7178
(09)638-8671
(09)534-5616
(09)376-6874
(09)838-6535
(09)576-4595
(09)834-6110
(09)837-4598
(09)846-8954
Bev Ching
JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, P.O. Box 91 -728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
Back issues of the journal are available from the Editor for $3.00 each postpaid.
ADVERTISING RATES
One third page (12-13 lines) $6.00
MEMBERS CORNER
Bromeliads wanted for buying, swapping or selling. Send details to the Editor. NO CHARGE
Swap -
Tillandsias copanensis & ponderosa Buy
Tillandsias lucida & pamelae
Dave Anderson, 33 Marsden Ave. Mt Eden...Ph.(09) 638-8671
# Printed by Balmoral Office Systems Ph (09)631-5693 Fax (09)623-7440

  BROMELIAD
Society of New Zealand Inc.
 June 2000 Vol.40 No.6
BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was formed on the 28th. August, 1962
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation, propagation and control of diseases
(b) To provide a library for members.
(c) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to encourage the importation of new plants.
(g) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar objects.
FRONT COVER Plant Identification
  This photograph was found in a collection of unnamed slides belonging to Harry Martin. It was so good that I had to have it for the front cover. A guzmania, but which one - berteroniana, melinonis or nicaraguensisl These seemed to be the most likely ones if it was a species. Editor
   Over to our Scientific Officer - failing a real live plant to examine, and hoping that the colours were accurate, he plumped for Guzmania melinonis - a small but attractive plant with a wide habitat. It is found growing epiphytically in forest between 300 to 3000 metres in Colombia, Surinam, French Guiana, Ecuador, Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil. The green leaves are 30-50cm long and the height when in flower is 20-23cm. Relatively easy to grow, it appreciates typical guzmania conditions - humidity, some shading and not too cold. PW
Photo: Harry Martin
2
CONTENTS
4     From the President                     Graham West
4     To the Editor                        Derek Butcher
5,6   May meeting news                     Dave Anderson
6     New members                                       
7-9   Cold hardiness & cold sensitivity  Dale W. Jenkins
10-12 A personal view on bromeliads            Dick Endt
12,14 Dark leafed bromeliads                            
13,15 Bromeliads "blacklisted"                Geoff Lawn
16    Bromeliad internet sites              Kelly Omeara
17,18 Looking back                           Pat Sweeney
18    Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group       Kevin Scholium
19    Northland Bromeliad Group         Jacqui O'Connell
19    Dividing billbergias                   John Catlan
20    Basics for Beginners                 Andrew Steens
21    Seedbank                          Gerry Stansfield
22    Meetings, membership, correspondence, journal.    
23    Officers                                          
23,24 x Neomea Exquisita                 Graham Alderson
COMING EVENTS                                           
JUNE
25th Northland Bromeliad Group at Jane Penney's, Toetoe Road at 1:30pm
26th- 5th July - Golden Anniversary - San Francisco BSI World Bromeliad Conference 27th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm Talk: Nidulariums
        Monthly plant competition: Vriesea fosteriana and hybrids
JULY
4th Deadline for copy for the July Journal.
12th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group at 1pm at the Tauranga Yacht Clubrooms 23rd Northland Bromeliad Group 23rd Wellington Tillandsia Study Group 25,h Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm
        Talk: BSI World Conference - Golden Anniversary (slides) Monthly plant competition: Hanging baskets
3
FROM THE PRESIDENT
   Although winter is here, at the time of writing, I have yet to experience a frost. For the last three years, I have continued to take off pups at this time with no ill effects. My thinking is that they will be established in the new pot and then will take off in the spring.
  The membership of the Society continues to grow. The three hundred barrier was broken last year and one wonders how long it will be before the four hundred mark is surpassed.
  With so many new members attending the Auckland monthly meetings, I am trying to keep everything simple and self-explanatory. If any members have any suggestions or requests about our meetings, the committee will gladly listen.
Graham
TO THE EDITOR
CAVEAT EMPTOR (let the buyer beware)
   I got great amusement from "Turkish Delight" on page 10 of the May issue, but no doubt there were others who were quite shocked at the salesmanship. In a way we are all guilty of this sort of deception to varying degrees and I believe that misnaming is just one example. Sometimes it is used as a blatant attempt to sell plants but most times it is innocent errors - some are more innocent than others!
   I was interested in your photograph of Bromelia balansae on page 11 and I would have thought that your more expert members would have been too because I think it is wrongly named. In the BSI Journal, 1995 page 261, Harry Luther went to great lengths to point out that the petals of Bromelia balansae are violet with white margins and the plant is a biggie. The impostor has maroon (more reddish) petals with white margins and the plant is smaller. This information is also on the Website "The Bromeliad Encyclopedia", http://fcbs.org under 'Uncle Derek says'. As Harry suggests, your plant could well be B. sylvicola.
  John Arden, of vriesea hybrid fame, has solved the problem of Vriesea corralina 'Rubra Superba' for us. This plant should look exactly the same as Vriesea platynemal If yours isn't, then think Vriesea 'Yellow Tail". Please check yours with the photographs in the "Bromeliad Encyclopaedia" on the Website.
Derek Butcher Adelaide
•The accuracy of the colour in the photos cannot be guaranteed. Ed.
4
MAY MEETING NEWS
   Nearly eighty members and visitors attended the May meeting -yet another record number this year.
   The Show & Tell discussion, with a table full of plants, was led by Peter Waters. The first was a Tillandsia imperialis, from Len Trotman, that had been in flower at the October meeting, still showing colour in the spike seven months later. An aechmea brought in for naming was the old Aechmea calyculata with a yellow cone shaped inflorescence. Laurie Dephoff showed two pitcairnias, Pitcairnia flammea in flower with attractive red flowers on a lax spike and Pitcairnia heterophyila, which was displaying the two different forms of leaves - the first, normal and grass-like, and the second, the very hard, spiny leaves at the base of the plant. A billbergia was possibly Billbergia Bobtail, but there are many similar hybrids, and a Neophytum Ralph Davis belonging to Des Yeates, was growing very well and becoming quite colourful with its red leaves. An Aechmea recurvata hybrid for naming also posed a problem, as there seem to be endless variations on a theme. The Chings had two neoregelias with bluish tinges in the foliage, which sometimes seems to happen with neoregelias. Peter Waters brought along a Neoregelia marmorata, which is supposedly the true species. A rather large, pale green plant with mottling in the centre but much paler and larger than the plants which have always been known as maimorata in New Zealand. These may possibly be hybrids or the species may be very variable. He also showed specimens of Billbergias brasiliensis and vittata. The true Billbergia brasiliensis has a much different flower and is not common here, although it has been masquerading as Billbergia alphonsi-joannis. The old faithful plant that we have known for years in New Zealand and called Billbergia brasiliensis is, in fact, just Billbergia vittata.
   Graham West led the discussion on dark leafed bromeliads - see page 12.
   The special raffle prize this month was won by Heather Cooke, with the door prizes going to Christine Primrose George Sangster and Carol Davis.
COMPETITIONS
Open flowering: 1st Len Trotman with Guzmania Ultra. 2nd was Win Shorrock's Aechmea Pink Rocket. Also in the competition were Aechmeas Rien's Pride & recurvata x, Neo's. carolinae, Avila and Rosa Morado, and a Nidularium fulgens in flower.
Open foliage: Jenny Gallagher was 1st with Aechmea By Golly, and 2nd was Peter Waters with Neoregelia Annick. In the competition were Aechmea Royal Wine, Billbergia Ole, Neoregelias ampullacea and Victoria Pink, and a Vriesea hybrid.
Tillandsia: Len Trotman's Till, guatemalensis was 1st equal with Jenny Gallagher's Till, punctulata. Also on the table were Till's, bourgaei, latifolia var. leucophylla, lindenii, seleriana and stricta.
Plant of the month - miniature neoregelias: 1st was Bev Ching's Neo. ampullacea followed by Len Trotman's Neo. Annick. In the competition were Neo's, abendrothae x parviflora, sarmentosa x pauciflora, ampullacea x Fireball, chlorosticta x Fairy Paint, Sugar & Spice, Pepper and Flaming Lovely.
Novice flowering: 1st was Kevin Kilsby with a Billbergia vittata and 2nd Christine Primrose's Tillandsia stricta. Also in the competition were Aechmea recurvata and Neo's. kautskyi and Radiant.
Novice foliage: 1st was Kevin Kilsby with Vriesea Red Chestnut and 2nd Peter Brady with Neoregelia Crimson Nest. Also present, Aechmeas recurvata, Fosters Favorite, a Dyckia, Neo's. Catherine Wilson, Sharlock, Royal Flush, Meyendorffii Variegata and a johannis hybrid, Quesnelia marmorata.
Best plant of the month: Len Trotman - Guzmania Ultra. Congratulations to all the winners. Dave Anderson
NEW MEMBERS
German, Tanya, 9 Braystone Place, Howick, Ak.
Hart, Wayne & Ashby, Patricia, 93b Balmain Road, Birkenhead.
Reed, Pamela, Horticultural Section, Universal College of Learning, Private Bag, 11022, Palmerston North.
Ross, J & Bain, K, 7 Matuku Place, Papatoetoe, Ak.
Sangster, George, 17 Ramelton Road, Mt. Roskill Ak.
Yates, Lani, 1754 Gt. North Road, Avondale, Ak.
ANGUSTIFOLIA...with narrow leaves BREVIFOLIA...with short leaves DEALBATA...glaucous white, leaves with white scales DISCOLOR...bicoloured leaves, usually wine underneath FASCIATA...banded or striped LINGULATA...tongue shaped leaves LONGICUSPIS...with a long leaf tip MACULATA...spotted, speckled leaves
6
COLD HARDINESS AND COLD SENSITIVITY OF BROMELIADS Dale W. Jenkins
   This article was reprinted in the Bromeliad Society International Journal, where it occupied nine pages. By changing the format and deleting those bromeliads, either not available in New Zealand yet or rarely so, the information has been compressed and perhaps made more accessible.
HARDY DOWN TO MINUS 7C
•Aechmeas blumenavii, Covata, distichantha var. schlumbergeri, kertesziae, lamarchei (DD), ornata, ornata var. nationalis, recurvata var. benrathii, •Billbergia pyramidalis var. striata (DD) •Brocchinia reducta, •Dyckias fosteriana x brevifolia, Naked Lady, rariflora, •Hechtia mexicana, •Nidularium fulgens (DD), •Puyas ferruginea, gracilis, venusta, •Tillandsias grandis, recurvata (frozen at -9.5C),
• Vrieseas atra, barilletii, bituminosa x saundersii, corcovadensis, ensiformis, flammea, friburgensis (inc. varieties), gigantea, lubbersii, Lucille, Mon Petit, philippocoburgii, platynema, Purple Cockatoo, Rex, rodigasiana, Rosa Morena, scalaris, schwackeana, simplex, vagans, Velva Wurthmann.
...those marked (DD) have been recorded as being severely damaged or killed at minus 2-3C, reasons not specified.
HARDY DOWN TO MINUS 7C (in some areas only hardy down to minus 2-3C)
•Aechmeas bromeliifolia (inc. Rubra), Burgundy (DD), calyculata (DD), caudata (burned -7.2C, killed -9C), caudata var. variegata, comata (DD), cylindrata (DD), distichantha, gamosepala, recurvata var. ortgiesii, •Billbergias distachia (DD), meyeri, nutans, pyramidalis (DD), Santa Barbara (DD), •Bromelia balansae (DD), •Deuterocohnia meziana (DD), •Dyckias brevifolia, fosteriana, Lad Cutak, leptostachya, maritima, microcalyx, remotiflora, •Fascicularias bicolor, pitcairnifolia, •Hechtia texensis (burned at -9C), •Neoregelias concentrica (DD), Pot Luck, •Nidulariums procerum, regelioides/ rutilans, • Puyas alpestris, berteroniana, coerulea (DD), laxa,
• Quesnelia testudo, •Tillandsias baileyi, fasciculata (DD), ionantha (DD), tenuifolia, usneoides (DD, killed at-9C), utriculata (DD, killed at -9C), •Vrieseas carinata (DD), incurvata, Mariae (DD).
...those marked (DD) have been recorded as being severely damaged or killed at minus 2-3C, reasons not specified.
7
HARDY DOWN TO MINUS 2-3C
•Acanthostachys strobilacea, •Aechmea dactylina, eurycorymbus, fendleri, lingulata, Mary Brett, orlandiana 'Ensign', pimenti-velosoi, pineliana var. minuta, triangularis, •Alcantarea vinicolor, •Ananas bracteatus, •Billbergias pyramidalis 'Kyoto', Theodore L. Mead, •Bromelia pinguin, •Canistrum aurantiacum, •Cryptanthus It, •Guzmanias berteroniana, Exodus, lingulata var. cardinalis, •Hechtia argentea, •Hohenbergia stellata (offsets), •Neoregelias Born of Fire, Catherine Wilson, johannis, pascoaliana, pineliana. Royal Burgundy, sarmentosa, tristis, •Nidulariums Chantrieri, scheremetiewii, •Pitcaimias flammea, xanthocalyx, •Quesnelias arvensis, marmorata, quesneliana, •Tillandsias aeranthos, bartramii, bergeri, brachycaulos, capitata, carlsoniae, chaetophylla, concolor, cyanea, didisticha, duratii var. saxatilis, edithiae, Emilie, exserta filifolia, guatemalensis, imperialis, ixioides, jucunda, juncea, kirchhoffiana, latifolia, leiboldiana, lindenii, linearis, loliacea, paleacea, stricta, subulifera, tricolor, vemicosa, violacea, x floridana, •Vrieseas bituminosa, ensiformis var. striata.
HARDY DOWN TO MINUS 2-3C (in some areas, severely damaged or killed at this temperature).
•Aechmeas aquilega, Bert, bracteata (DD) chlorophylla, fasciata (DD), fosteriana, Fosters Favorite, fulgens (DD), lueddemanniana (DD), mariae-reginae, miniata (DD), mulfordii, nudicaulis, orlandiana, pectinata, penduliflora, pineliana, recurvata, Royal Wine, triticina, weilbachii, •Alcantarea imperialis, •Androlepis skinneri (DD), •Billbergias amoena, Catherine Wilson, Fantasia, Gerda, leptopoda (DD), morelii, Muriel Waterman, rosea saundersii, vittata, zebrina, •Cryptbergia Red Burst (DD), •Deuterocohnias brevifolia, longipetala, •Neoregelias ampullacea, Avalon, carcharodon, carolinae, chlorosticta, farinosa, Fireball, fosteriana, macrosepala, Maroon, marmorata hybrid, spectabilis, •Nidulariums amazonicum, innocentii, •Portea petropolitana (& var. extensa), •Quesnelia liboniana, •Tillandsias balbisiana, festucoides, gymnobotrya, simulata, streptophylla, • Vrieseas erythrodactylon, fenestralis, fosteriana 'Red Chestnut', hieroglyphica, malzinei, x retroflexa, •Wittrockia superba.
...those marked (DD) have been recorded as being severely damaged or killed at OC, reasons not specifies.
8
SEVERELY DAMAGED OR KILLED AT MINUS 2-3C
•Aechmeas blanchetiana, Coral Beads, fasciata var. purpurea (DD-OC), fulgens var. discolor, magdalenae var. quadricolor, mexicana, miniata discolor, politii, purpureorosea, racinae, rubens, serrata, tillandsioides, victoriana, •Billbergias euphemiae, horrida, porteana, sanderiana, •Cryptanthus bivittatus, •Guzmanias Insignis, lingulata, wittmackii, •Hohenbergia stellata (mature), •Neoregeiias cruenta, eleutheropetala, kautskyi, macwilliamsii, •Tillandsias butzii, caput-medusae, complanata, deppeana, flexuosa, kaminskyana, lampropoda, lucida, multicaulis, paucifolia, plumosa, polystachia, pruinosa, pseudobaileyi, punctulata, rothii, tectorum, viridiflora, yunckeri. •Vrieseas ospinae, saundersii, splendens.
SEVERELY DAMAGED OR KILLED AT OC
•Aechmeas chantinii, corymbosa, dichlamydea var. trinitensis, gigantea, longifolia, mexicana, nallyi, tessmannii, •Ananas comosus, •Billbergias Full Moon, macrocalyx, •Dyckia platyphylla, •Edmundoa lindenii, •Neoregeiias George's Prince, laevis, •Orthophytum navioides, •Pitcairnias andreana, atrorubens, tabuliformis, •Portea kermesina.
  The author suggests that these measurements should be considered an approximation of the cold hardiness and cold sensitivity of bromeliads and that there is a need for accurate scientific studies. In the tables, "hardy" means that no significant damage was observed at the temperatures indicated after exposure of 6 to 8 hours.
  Reprinted (abridged) from the Newsletter of the Sarasota Bromeliad Society, Volume 30, Number 3.
MAXIMUM- MINIMUM THERMOMETERS
   These thermometers are now easily available, relatively cheap ($25.00 approximately), and should be basic equipment for keen gardeners - especially those who live in marginal areas for growing subtropical and tropical plants. Temperatures in microclimates in the same garden can vary by as much as 5-6C. Taking recordings from mid May to mid August, usually covers the coolest period and removes the guesswork. Frosts are usually estimated to occur at +5-7C but temperatures in some places can drop to +3C without suffering frost or incurring damage to tender plants such as calathea, ctenanthe, medinilla, some orchids, philodendrons, stromanthe etc.
9
A PERSONAL VIEW ON BROMELIADS
Dick Endt
   Contrary to most bromeliad enthusiasts, my interest in these plants came as a result of my travels around South America. At this time, for most bromeliad collectors, the interest in these plants was started by observing bromeliads at flower shows and at Society meetings where bromeliads are displayed and discussed at length.
   Bromeliads, like so many other different cultivated plants, appear to be entangled by a host of man-made botanical names, botanical rules, hybridised, displayed like pet animals, stuck in pots, even glued to bits of driftwood, with the ultimate result of producing and showing plants which bear little resemblance to plants growing in nature.
   I asked myself if this is really what attracts me to bromeliads - no, not really. Bromeliads are amazing plants. The ultimate mechanisms for survival against climatic odds make these plants really special. They will grow in the wettest and driest climates, the hottest and coldest, in deep shade or in full sun. They will grow on rocks, in trees
- in fact in any place they can find a hold. Some tillandsias have no roots at all. They just hang onto anything that will support them, even power lines. Not surprisingly, in their native habitat, bromeliads are considered to be weeds by many locals. I have seen giant trees in Ecuador festooned with bromeliads of many colours, their branches broken off by the weight of the epiphytes growing on them. Such broken branches, when shattered on the ground, provide an insight into the richness and variety of plant life, difficult to equal anywhere else on earth. In Argentina, in the dry north-western part of the country, one cannot fail to be impressed by the xerophytic tillandsias (drought resistant) along the roadsides By nature these plants have a silvery-green appearance, with splashes of pink or red when in flower. The reason why tillandsias love growing near roadsides and on power lines, is the fact that the dust thrown up by vehicles provides the very mineral nutrients for survival. Needless to say, all plants along these roadways are the same colour as the dust that covers them.
(Continued on page 12)_
Top left: Wild pineapple in Ecuador - looks like Ananas bracteata or Atianas ananassoides.
Top right: Guzmania bessei in habitat (Ecuador). Grows well in shade. Bottom: Bromeliads grow in deep shade on the forest floor (Ecuador)
10
DARK LEAFED BROMELIADS
   Graham West led a discussion on this subject. Displayed on the centre table were the following plants:
Aechmea Perez...blackest aechmea, needs medium shade.
Billbergia Carrones Black...grown under plastic in high light.
           Con Gusto...same conditions.
Guzmania Peacockii...shade, leaves burgundy, tall plant.
Neoregelia America 'Purple Mountains Majesty'...strong high light. (concentrica x cruenta 'Rubra') ampullacea cv. USA seedling...high light, basket.
            Best Bet #2...high light in hanging basket.
            (chlorosticta x Red Birds)
           Black Beauty...same conditions.
           (ampullacea x ampullacea 'Tigrina'.
            Black Tip...strong light. (Takemura Princeps cv.)
            Grande 'Fantastic Gardens'...full sun.
            Juliette...very strong light. (Irene x melanodonta)
            Midnight...low light, a new import.
             Radiant...full sun.
             Sharlock...full sun, easily available.
           Takemura Grande...darkest in full sun.
(Continued from page 10)
   Long before I joined the Bromeliad Society, I became fascinated by these plants, growing so profusely. When I started collecting a few plants in South America, the local people thought that I was crazy. Their thinking was perhaps the same as we would have done, if I started collecting weeds in New Zealand.
   Bromeliads are becoming increasingly recognised and admired. It is my opinion that a lot of the interest in bromeliads, is inspired by using these plants as part of a subtropical garden design rather than as "show plants". There is a place for each. More landscapers are using bromeliads in imaginative ways - a good example can be seen at Eden Gardens in Auckland. Perhaps the late Noel Scotting, Bromeliad Society member, pioneered the bromeliad garden concept to its artistic perfection.
Photos: Dick Endt
12
BROMELIADS "BLACKLISTED"
Geoff Lawn
   No foliage bromeliad is truly devoid of colour, or black, but some come close since they have predominant or solid shades of indigo, mahogany and aubergine purple, to deepest ebony. These dark beauties can be loosely grouped as - those with rather fixed pigmentation and others with very variable leaf hues. Anthocyanic pigments, which mask the green undertone and serve several purposes, produce this foliar attractiveness. These pigments give red and blue flowers their colour.
   Anthocyanin laden epidermal cells can shield deeper leaf tissues from intense ultraviolet light, which might otherwise destroy the photo-synthesising chloroplasts. This function applies especially to sun-exposed, sparsely scurfed species in the thinner atmosphere at high altitudes, particularly if stressed through moisture and nutrient deficiencies. Nearer sea level, growers can still achieve comparable results, even if seasonal, but low humidity and bleaching are dangers to watch. Become aware which green species and hybrids never redden up in your area but burn readily if subjected to strong light of long duration.
   Leathery-leafed bromeliads of this category are named below. They are usually reliable, but the reader should realise that hard grown specimens at maturity are usually smaller than their well fed, but less colourful counterparts:
Aechmeas fasciata var. purpurea, Black Magic, Burgundy, Black Marble, Noir, Very Black.
Billbergias Clyde Wasley, Othello, Penumbra.
Cryptanthus Black Cherry, Black Mystic, Black Prince, Cherry Frost, Snakeskin.
Dyckia Dark Chocolate.
Neoregeiias fosteriana, johannis "Rubra', melanodonta, Claret, Dark Delight, Deep Purple, Dexter's Pride, Morris Henry Hobbs, Royal Flush, Sanguine Night, Vulkan, Alvin Purple, Blackie, Darkie. Bigenerics: x Cryptbergia Red Burst, x Neolarium Thor, x Neomea Black Snow, x Neomea Magenta Star.
13
  A race apart are the shade loving aechmea species whose soft bicoloured foliage, it is theorised, enhances photosynthesis at lower light levels through the reflective properties of their anthocyanins. The red reverses of Aechmeas victoriana var. discolor, fulgens var. discolor and miniata var. discolor impart completely maroon or garnet coloured leaves to many hybrids, often by the champion specialist breeder, Ed Hummel. Excessive light often dulls and muddies the natural foliage sheen and colouring in this group:
   Aechmeas Belizia, Black Flamingo, Black Knight, Black Panther, Black Prince, Black Tiger, By Golly, Chocolate Soldier, Ebony Glow, Foster's Favorite, Grape, Jackson, Lullaby, Mirlo, Nightlight, Nigre, Perez, Pico, Tonado, Black Jack, Prieto.
  In other genera, there are Vriesea sucrei, Canistropsis (Nidularium) billbergioides 'Rubra', Nid. innocentii 'Nana', Nid. microps var. bicense, x Nidumea Jean, x Nidumea Midnight.
   Some growers complain that the appearance of these dark leafed plants is lifeless, either en masse or singly, and indeed, they can look sombre when shown this way. As companion plants in a mixed display however, they provide contrast and solidarity to plants with lighter patterned foliage, notably variegates.
  For competition and displays, the shiny leafed specimens especially should be wiped clean as they invariably show up any mineral deposits, grime or dust. In artistic arrangements requiring dramatic or bold simplicity, blackish rosettes or leaves can evoke themes of evil and mysticism.
   This favourable "black list" is by no means complete but it focuses on a multitude which, often possessing long lasting, attractive inflorescences too, vie for a plum role, figuratively speaking in our collections.
   Reprinted from the BSI Journal, Volume 39, Number 5.
(A slightly different version of this article was published in the Bromeliad Newsletter, Volume 6, Number 2, Bromeliad Society of New South Wales)
•Geoff Lawn lives in Western Australia.
Top: Neoregelia Midnight Photo: Marjorie Lowe
Bottom: Neoregelia Black Tip Photo: Peter Waters
15
BROMELIAD INTERNET SITES
Kelly Omeara
   I am not sure if these sites are relevant to the New Zealand climate but just browsing through them kept me busy. Some of the information, I am sure, can be applied to growing bromeliads in New Zealand. Some of these sites are also just shops for some of the larger growers that are selling bromeliads online, but they still have quite interesting information on the page too.
SEARCH ENGINES
http;//www. aitavista .com
SITES
Bromeliad Biota
http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/-frank/brom ei.htm
Florida council of Bromeliad Societies
http://fcbs.org/
Bromeliad Society International
http://bsi.org/
Bromeliad Society of South Florida
http.v/www. set'I in. org/bssf/
Ecology and the evolution of bromeliads
http://floravvww.eeb.uconn.edu.acc num/198500778.htmi
Private companies/growers/nurseries on the web
http:/7wwvv. stokestropicals.com/ http://www.airplant.com/ http://campbells-nrsy.com/brom.htmi http: //www. b u la ca n q a rde n. co m/b rorn. ht m i http://www.cassiakeyensis.com/sofl-piants/brom-index. h tmj
Suriname frog types that live in bromeliads
http://home.att.net/-a. icalisi/surmame.htmi
Everglades plant diversity
http://www.biol.andrews.edu /everqlades/plant/piant.htm
LOOKING BACK
MAY MINITALK
Pat Sweeney
   A fortnight or so ago, I had a ring from our President asking me if I could remember far enough back to know how I became interested in bromeliads.
   Back in the mid 1950's, I was a member of the Cactus & Succulent Society and also very interested in floral art, I competed at the Town Hall Shows put on by the Auckland Horticultural Council. It was at this time that I met Laurie Dephoff and Bea Hanson. Different members would bring in a plant referred to as a bromeliad, but I don't remember there being much like the beautiful neoregeiias of today. The first plant I bought was Aechmea triangularis, it came from Mr. Collin who lived in Mt. Smart Road. Plants were not available in the shops and nurseries, regardless of price.
   The Cactus & Succulent Society ran a competition with all the branches throughout New Zealand - "A Decorative Arrangement using Succulents". I was talking to Mrs. Hanson and she said she had some lovely coloured bromeliad leaves she would give me and from then on I was hooked. Not so much the colouring, but the usefulness of the leaves - you only had to use a few leaves, a few hunks of succulent, and you had a long-lasting, attractive arrangement.
   Sometime later, in the very early sixties, the late Bill Rogers approached Mrs. Hanson suggesting there should be a Bromeliad Society, but he didn't want to do the work of setting it up. So the Society was born. Early members came from both the Cactus and Succulent Society and the Houseplant Society - Gerry Stansfield, Graham Arnott, Andy Andrews and Charles Allan, whose names come up often.
   The first meeting was held in the late John Davy's building at the top of Airedale Street with about 20 present. Mr. Davy was always very generous, and his rooms were always at our disposal free of charge.
  Later we moved to The Chimes' in Symonds Street which the AHC had bought.
(Continued on next page)
17
BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
   We had an enjoyable morning in Katikati for the May garden visit to Brian and Cushla Chudleigh. A new bromeliad house that Brian had built since Christmas, is now accommodating quite a number of plants. Cushla has her house also, where she grows cacti and succulents.
   Then to Anna Long's place where she grow palms and cycads with bromeliads tucked in several places.
  On June 12th we met for the mid-year meeting with 31 people present. More plants came forward - the plant of the month was Vriesea fosteriana - making a great collection. Jo Elder gave us a rundown on the naming of plants. The display plants had several without names and Aechmea recurvata was to the fore.
   The competition plants were: 1st Elizabeth Bailey - Tillandsia cyanea, 2nd Isabel Clotworthy - Aechmea Tam Star, 3rd= Barry Jones
- Aechmea Pink Rocket and Jo Elder - Aechmea Fascini.
   A change was made with the Plant of the Month for July - anything that is prickly. August - green leafed flowering vrieseas and September - cryptanthus.
  The raffle was won by Barry Jones (Vriesea fosteriana) and Margaret Craig (Osmocote).
Kevin Scholium
BEAUTIFUL BROMELIADS Baensch The Society is at present unable to purchase further copies of this book, now out of print. If any member can locate any, please inform the Secretary. _
(Continued from the previous page)
   This Society has always been very active and has gone steadily ahead, particularly at the moment, with bromeliads being the fashionable plant of the day. Our first show was held in this hall (Greyfriars), in the early 1980's - later we moved to Eden Garden.
  Displays were always mounted whenever we were invited - Town Hall, Showgrounds, 1ZB Garden Week, Ellerslie Racecourse and the Meadowbank Beautifying Society.
   Each year we had an Annual Dinner at a different venue (Sorrento, Nosh Inn, Turquoise Room, John & Patricia Otto's at Otahuhu, just to name a few. Our Twentieth Birthday was catered for in this Hall, with Toasts & Replies and paid Entertainment!!!
18
NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
   For our May meeting, fourteen of our group travelled to Auckland. The first stop was Peter Coyle's new garden at Whenuapai. What a lovely garden it is and will be - all those lovely palms, succulents and bromeliads, not to mention the birdlife. It was interesting to note that Peter grows some bromeliads in much more sun without burning than we can in the north. Is it hotter with brighter sun up here, or is it that Auckland has a smog layer? I hope we will be able to come back to see how the garden develops. Thank you Peter for being such a helpful and informative host.
  Next stop was Len Trotman's. Our newer members who had not been there before, were quite stunned by Len's plants and, of course, we all had a big spend up. Len had some absolutely gorgeous guzmanias flowering. - not for sale of course. Len and Pearl always make our group so welcome, we chat away like old mates.
   Last stop was Joe and Barbara Murray's at Glenfield, where we snaffled up every Aechmea Black Jack they had. Such a lovely dark colour. They have a huge clump of Tillandsia punctulata, it must look stunning when covered in flowers. We were provided with a sumptuous afternoon tea just as it started raining. I must say you Aucklanders are a very friendly and hospitable lot!
Jacqui O'Connell
NEXT MEETING: Our next meeting will be held at Jane Penney's, Toetoe Road on Sunday 25th June at 1:30pm.
DIVIDING BILLBERGIAS John Catlan
   People do foliage billbergias a disservice when they hit them with too much fertiliser and divide the plants up so they can have a dozen pots of each plant with one green plant in each pot. Yes, I do divide the clumps up, but pot them back into the same pot (better organised for future growth) and if the clump is big, split it between two pots. My ideal way when starting off a new pot of billbergias, is to start with at least three (and four if possible) pups, pot them up in the centre of a 20cm pot (as if they were a bundle of pups tied together) with all the growth eyes facing outwards. When they flower, the first year you get a staggered flowering but as the clump settles down, you get a flowering pattern that is more synchronised.
  Reprinted from Bromlink, January/February, 1999 - Gold Coast Succulent and Bromeliad Society Inc.
19
BASICS FOR BEGINNERS
Getting the light right Andrew Steens
   Do your neoregelias not colour up well? Or have you planted out a bromeliad recently and it has developed brown leaves? Most probably these plants are not in the optimal light conditions.
   Bromeliads come from a wide range of environments, from the High Andes to the depths of a tropical rainforest, so their light requirements range from very high to very low. New Zealand has high light levels for most of the year, so generally, finding shady areas for bromeliads is more important than finding sunny spots.
   Too much shade will slow plant growth down and produce leaves, which are longer, thinner and greener. This may be OK for green leafed shade lovers such as nidulariums, but you will lose the stunning effect of coloured varieties such as neoregelias. On the other hand, neoregelias in sunny conditions will produce shorter, thicker leaves with more intense colours.
   Excess sun will bleach the colour of some varieties, particularly coloured nidulariums, and may produce more yellowing or reddening in the leaves of other varieties Extremely high light levels may cause leaf scorching. This also occurs where a plant has been grown in low light and is shifted into high light without acclimatising it first.
   As a guide, most species fit into the following categories, but of course there are the exceptions!___ _
  1 Approximate summer shade level in the garden
Full sun - Dyckia, puya.
30% shading to full sun - Billbergia, tillandsia (silver leafed types) 10% to 30% shading - Aechmea (silver leafed types)
30% to 40% shading - Aechmea (green leafed types), cryptanthus and neoregelia.
40% shading - Tillandsia (green leafed types)
40% to 50% shading - Guzmania, nidularium 50% shading - Vriesea
   In general, the varieties that need 30% or more shading will not cope with midday sun, so plant them under overhanging foliage, such as tree ferns, palms and open shrubs. Varieties that need 40% or more shading, can also cope with total shade, so are ideal for heavily planted areas or for the south side of the house.
* Website.....http://www.bromeliads.co.nz
20
 NOW AVAILABLE:
 Aechmea - aquilega, bracteata, bromeliifolia, coelestis var. coelestis, fraseri, lueddemanniana 'Alvarez', pittieri, recurvata var?, spectabilis Billbergia - rosea, viridiflora, vittata, vittata hybrid, zebrina Dyckia - brevifolia, fosteriana (dark form), Dyckia (unknown) ex. USA (BSI).
 Guzmania - lingulata (was from variegata but will only germinate as var. lingulata)
 Nidularium - amazonicum, innocentii var. innocentii Pitcairnia - carinata, flammea var. roezlii, imbricata, tabuliformis Puya - mirabilis, venusta
 Tillandsia - butzii, fasciculata (Florida) limbata, magnusiana, myosura, plagiotropica, pohliana, tricolor, viridiflora Vriesea - bituminosa, Corralina, gigantea, modesta, platynema v. variegata, platynema (ex Trinidad), Poelmannii, Rex hybrid, scalaris
 Germination is good on all seed.
 New seed received from Moyna Prince, Florida, Ken Woods, NSW, Harvey Beltz, BSI, USA, Kevin Kilsby, Auckland. Just a reminder that excess seed is sent to both Australia and the USA. So don't throw any away, as the more we send away the more we get back. More members are enjoying the challenge of growing from seed.
 • The seedbank will exchange two packets of 20 seeds for one (1) large packet of your seed. Make sure it is labelled correctly.
 • Please send in a large stamped envelope.
 • Packets (of at least 20 seeds) are 50 cents.
 • Limited to two packets of seed per kind per member.
 ORDERS with large, stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to:
 Gerry Stansfield, 7 NoaDI Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland. Telephone (09) 834-7178
21
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS
New Zealand NZ$20.00 Ordinary
                   NZ$ 5.00 Associate (same household)
Overseas NZ$25.00 Australia
                    NZ$30.00 United States and other overseas
Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, P.O. Box 91-728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
Back issues of the journal are available from the Editor for $3.00 each post-paid.
ADVERTISING RATES
One third page (12-13 lines) $6.00 Advertisements must be bromeliad related.
At the Editor's discretion if too many received.
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the authors' own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
Printed By Balmoral Office Systems Phone (09)631-5693 Fax (09)623-7440
OFFICERS
PATRON S LIFE MEMBER HISTORIAN & LIFE MEMBER PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENTS
SECRETARY
TREASURER
EDITOR
LIBRARIAN
COMMITTEE
AUDITOR AHC DELEGATES LIFE MEMBERS
SCIENTIFIC OFFICER CULT I VAR REGISTRAR
Mrs. Bea Hanson Laurie Dephoff Graham West Lester Ching Gerry Stansfield Dave Anderson Peter Waters Marjorie Lowe Des Yeates Bev Ching Gary Cooke Brian Dawson Kevin Kilsby Colin Gosse Patricia Sweeney, Harry Martin Patricia Perratt Patricia Sweeney Peter Waters Gerry Stansfield
(09)527-6830
(09)527-7789
(09)298-3479
(09)576-4595
(09)834-7178
(09)638-8671
(09)534-5616
(09)376-6874
(09)838-6535
(09)576-4595
(09)834-6110
(09)837-4598
(09)846-8954
Bev Ching
BACK COVER
In the glasshouse - X Neomea Exquisita
                (Unknown x Neomea parentage - Page 172 BCR) A medium to large rosette, with discoloured 45-50cm leaves, 8cm wide, maroon below and dark to olive green above. Semi recessed inflorescence, compact and branched.
   The inflorescence on this particular plant was 12cm in diameter with a central, upright, strawberry shaped yellow knob that was surrounded by nine individual knobs. These were all covered with dark red flower bracts and produced pale blue flowers. The top of the inflorescence was 7cm above the rosette. It was a very symmetrical flower head and one of the best bigeneric bromeliads.
   I have grown and flowered several, but all have been smaller than this plant. The plants have a tendency to produce 6-8 pups, all of equal size at once. Maybe, once the pups start to show, if they were all cut off except one, this may allow the first to grow to a stronger, larger plant. It is not easy to destroy them.
Photo/text: Graham Alderson
23

 

 CO CL LU O — < —I C/3IOJ — CO C/) ZD LU
BROMELIAD
 Society of New Zealand Inc.
March 2000 Vol.40 No.3
BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was formed on the 28th. August, 1962,
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation, propagation and control of diseases.
(b) To provide a library for members.
(c) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to encourage the importation of new plants.
(g) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar objects.
FRONT COVER Show Champion - Tillandsia xerographica
   Although the species name xeros refers to the typical dry desert where it grows, xerographica likes to be well watered, especially when growing in a warm house which is where I grew this one. It will grow in Auckland's ambient temperatures, high up under glass, where it likes the bright light and is protected from our winter rains. However, they do much better if grown in a warm house, as it brings out the beautiful pink flush tones to the leaves. I obtained this plant, and some other clones I have, from Len Trotman some years ago. Since then, the plant has been registered on the CITES list - that means that neither plants nor seed can be gathered and exported from their natural habitat. It is no wonder that such a beautiful plant has been put in this category.
Photo: Graham Alderson Text: David Anderson
2
CONTENTS
4     From the President                 Lester Ching
5,6   February meeting news             Dave Anderson
6     New members                                    
7-10  Togetherness??                       Kathy Dorr
11-16 Annual Competitive Show - 2000                 
17,21 Show Time                          Louise Joyce
18,19 Up Whangarei Way               Sue Schatzdorfer
20    Beware of plant thieves          Laurie Dephoff
22    Letter to the editor                           
23    Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group    Kevin Scholium
24    Northland Bromeliad Group      Jacqui O'Connell
25    Seedbank                       Gerry Stansfield
26    Meetings, membership, correspondence, journal. 
27    Officers                                       
COMING EVENTS MARCH
26th Northland Bromeliad Group - meeting at 1:30pm at the home of Bruce & Lorraine Walden, 22 Charlotte Street, Dargaville. 28th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm
     Annual General Meeting.
       Talk: Unusual and rare species of Neoregelia
       Monthly plant competition: Aechmea fasciata and hybrids
APRIL
1st,2nd Te Puke Orchid Show - Bromeliad display and sales.
4th Deadline for copy for the April Journal.
12th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - meeting at 1 pm at the
       Tauranga Yacht Clubrooms - committee meeting at 12 noon. 19th BOP Bromeliad Group garden visit to Gay Bambery, 19 Plateau Heights, Mt. Maunganui at 10am, then to Isabel Clotworthy, 223 Range Road, Papamoa.
25th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm Talk: Lotusland, USA with slides Monthly plant competition: Bigenerics
3
FROM THE PRESIDENT
   With the Bromeliad Show 2000 behind us, I now have the pleasure to inform everyone it has been a very successful show, with an excellent competition with prizes going to many winners. We could certainly do with more novice entries in the competition.
   Many thanks go to the following people for organising the show -Barbara Murray and Gill Keesing for the display of bromeliads, Glenys Guild and her helpers for organising the teas, Peter Waters for organising and running the competition, Graham West for running the sales tables, and Dave Anderson and Len Trotman, assisted by Jo Elder and Jenny Gallagher, with the judging.
  Any issues or suggestions about the show, please put them in writing and place them in the suggestion box at the next meeting.
  There was a good crowd, with many new members, attending the February meeting. The talk, given by Dave Anderson, explained why some plants won at the show competitions and why some did not.
   Plants are still needed for sale on the monthly trading table. Remember there are plenty of new members at the meetings who are looking for good bromeliads.
  The members who went on the bus trip to Whangarei had a great day. The bus was absolutely full of plants on its return. Many thanks to Maureen and Keith Green and Avon and Barbara Ryan and team for a great day out.
   The AGM will start at 7:30pm followed by the general meeting. Make sure you are there to have your say, as this is your chance if you want change.
THOUGHT
We all look forward to tomorrow but it is what we do with it that counts.
Lester Ching
FEBRUARY FRONT COVER
   Those of you who read the interesting article by Andrew Flower on Tillandsia macdougallii (in last month's issue) with due care and attention, will have noticed something strange. The clue - ''...have greener leaves and large pendent inflorescences".
   Wanting to use the photo on the front cover, the editor CHEATED and turned it sideways. Fora proper view of this plant, please hold the journal with the spine uppermost. This is how it should look.
4
MARCH MEETING NEWS
   It was good to see 63 members attend the general meeting after such a busy weekend at the show.
   The Show Trophies were presented after the general business. See the list of winners later in the journal.
   The monthly meeting started with the Show & Tell section. First up was a small stoloniferous Neoregelia hybrid, wanting a name. As usual with these hybrids, they are extremely difficult to name and this one was no exception - possibly tristis x Fireball, but the plant was considered to be not glossy enough for a Fireball hybrid. A green strap leafed Billbergia was next up and this was probably Billbergia distachia or a hybrid of distachia, but the plant certainly needed to be placed in much higher light to grow properly. An Aechmea Royal Wine was brought in to be named. This Mulford Foster hybrid (Aechmea miniata var. discolor x Aechmea victoriana var. discolor) has been around for many years but is still a handsome plant. Lastly there was a Racinaea species for identification with its Vriesea green leaves and its thin flower spike, which is typical of this genus.
   Dave Anderson gave a talk about the plant winners from the show.
COMPETITIONS
Open flowering: First was Len Trotman with Aechmea Friederike, a spineless cultivar of Aechmea Fascini and second was Peter Waters with Guzmania sanguinea var. brevipedicellata. Also in the competition were Guzmania Magnifica, Neoregelias Plutonis x Painted Lady, Painted Delight, and an unnamed hybrid.
Open foliage: Peter Waters was first with Neoregelia (carolinae x concentrica) x mcwilliamsii. Second also, was Peter with Neophytum Galactic Warrior, a stunner only recently released. In the competition were Neoregelias Manoa Beauty and Barbarian, Billbergia Othello and a Vriesea hybrid.
Tillandsia: Win Shorrock's Till, leiboldiana was first with four flower spikes, with second being Len Trotman's Till, multicaulis, always a lovely plant in flower. There were also on the table Tillandsia jaliscomonticola, Victoria and a Vriesea cereicola.
Plant of the month: Skotak hybrids & variegated Neoregelias.
First was Gerry Stansfield with Neoregelia Skotak # 5 followed by Peter Waters with Neoregelia Predatress. In the competition were
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Neoregelias Imperfecta, Morado, Predator, Skotak # 6 and Skotak # 8.
Novice flowering : First was Kevin Kilsby with Tillandsia cyanea and second was Noeline Ritson with a Neoregelia carolinae. Also in the competition were Neo. Sheer Joy, Ae. fasciata and Till, hitchcockiana. Novice foliage: First was Carol Davis with a Neo. hybrid and second was Kevin Kilsby with Ae. Big Stuff. On the table was also Neoregelia sarmentosa x chlorosticta.
Best plant of the month: Peter Waters with Neoregelia (carolinae x concentrica) x mcwilliamsii.
Congratulations to all the winners. Dave Anderson
NEW MEMBERS
Bartleet, Trish, 26 Harbour View Road, Pt. Chevalier, Ak.
Bowbyes, Mrs. 0, 56 Trig Road, Whitford, Ak.
Bridges, Jenny, 595 Roseberry Avenue, Birkenhead, Ak.
Cooper, Julie, 15 Dingle Road, St. Heliers Bay, Ak.
Cranefield, Fay, 114 Whangaparoa Road, Red Beach, Hibiscus Coast Farrow, Graham & Jean, 46a Carlton Road, Howick, Ak.
Forster, Lynn, Box 16-212, Sandringham, Ak.
Gooch, June, 40 Renata Crescent, Te Atatu, Ak.
Good, Mrs. E, 1 Sharpe Road, Epsom, Ak.
Hart, Brian & Gwen, 41 Puketea Street, Blockhouse Bay, Ak.
Hawkins, Don & Rachel, 33c Northboro Road, Takapuna, Ak.
Hill, Stephanie, 57 Third Avenue, Kingsland, Ak.
Martin, Glenys, 11 Hobson Road, Albany, Ak.
Melling, Tristan, 108 Parker Road, Oratia, Ak.
Mills, Julie, 88 Lonely Track Road, Albany, Ak.
Moore, Julie, 347 Onehunga Mall, Onehunga, Ak.
Moore, Ricardo, 32 Watchmans Road, Karekare, Ak.
Munro, Anne, 12 Waters Road, Mt. Wellington, Ak.
Piper, Louise, 73 Royal Road, Massey, Ak.
Sahnovic, Viv, 7 Ballarat Street, Ellerslie, Ak.
Spurgeon, H & P, 13 Vida Place, Howick, Ak.
Vette, K & G, 70 Beachhaven Road, Beachhaven.
Walk, Maria, 36 Kokich Crescent, Whangarei.
West, Joy, 18 Kanuka Road, R.D. Bombay, Auckland.
Wogan, Vicki, 17 Keystone Avenue, Mt. Roskill, Ak.
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TOGETHERNESS??
Kathy Dorr
  The question has been asked, "Can you grow all bromeliads together?" This tends to be a leading question - bromeliads are a challenge to any grower as their response to environmental factors differs from species to species, let alone from genus to genus.
   Heat, cold, water, light and air are all factors to be considered when growing bromeliads. Whether they are to be grown outside or as houseplants is another factor. If the question means - can you grow all bromeliads within a specific area, again the answer would have to be, yes and no!
   If you own a glasshouse in which you could reproduce all growing conditions in various areas of the greenhouse - yes, you probably could grow all bromeliads within the same area. If you grow outside, as most southern Californian growers do, then no, it is not possible to grow ALL bromeliads in a specified area.
Aechmea - Many of these will grow outside with some protection and others are next to impossible to grow without a greenhouse - Ae. mertensii, tillandsioides and others. Some require bright light -oriandiana and Bert for example, while other, Fosters Favorite, Bastantha and Black Panther require subdued light. ALL require plenty of moving air and sufficient watering.
Ananas - These seemingly grow outside very happily with no, or at least very few, exceptions. Remember I am speaking of Southern California.
Araeococcus - These, on the whole, seem happier if they have protection, preferably a greenhouse, although some will grow in a protected area.
Billbergia - Although this is considered a very hardy branch of the Bromelioideae, there are a few of these that need protection, while the majority will grow outside. Most do well in bright light, but there are a few that will develop better colour if grown in a little less light. Again, these need plenty of air and water.
Bromelia - Just get out of the way and let them grow! I have a friend who planted one too close to the dividing fence between his yard and the neighbour's and it has 'burrowed' under the fence, sending out offshoots into the neighbour's yard, which has not helped to intensify
7
friendly relations.
Canistrum- These seem to prefer 'medium' light conditions and plenty of moisture as well as plenty of air. They grow well outside in slightly protected areas.
Catopsis - Seem to be happier when grown as epiphytes and in an area where there is plenty of moisture, bright light, but not direct sun. Otherwise they do well in the greenhouse.
Cryptanthus - These are not what I would label as 'outside' growing plants, although there are a few that will do so, such as Cascade, acaulis, and some of the hybrids. Since these are terrestrials, they definitely need watering.
Deuterocohnia - They make beautiful plants when grown in very bright light, lightly protected and given plenty of water. They are quite happy outdoors.
Dyckia - Same conditions as the Deuterocohnias for 'blemish-free', very happy plants. You read and hear that these plants are to be grown dry, but for maximum beauty, they need LARGE pots or grown in the ground under the above conditions.
Encholirium - Same as above.
Fosterella - The only one of these that seems to grow 'blemish-free' under outside conditions, with some protection of course, is Fosterella villosula. Even the prolific Fosterella penduliflora always looks as though it had gone through a storm by the time it flowers when grown outside. They survive and flower, but to keep them in 'show' condition, it takes a greenhouse.
Greigia - This one seems to be the happiest when given a lot of FOOT-ROOM, plenty of moisture and some fairly bright light part of the day. It took me a number of years to find the exact area this plant was happy in - I nearly lost it a number of times until the proper conditions were provided. I read somewhere that, in their native habitats, the flower clusters were nearly submerged in wet moss and leaves - this clued me in to the fact they LIKE moisture. Now some ten years from seed, it is large enough to flower and has produced offshoots.
Guzmania - With only a very few exceptions, this is definitely a genus for the greenhouse group. Guzmania monostachia (in a protected area) and Guzmania sanguinea (grown and acclimated from seed) have both done well outside.
Hechtia - These take the same conditions as the Dyckias and do well outside.
8
Hohenbergia - Seem to do well in almost any area in the yard, preferring strong light.
Neoregelia - On the whole, they prefer very bright light, lots of air, plenty of moisture and they do well. There are a few, such as Neo. lilliputiana and mooreana, that will only survive under greenhouse conditions for me. They do not like the cold. In the summer they are perfectly happy to be outside, but once the cool weather sets in, these two had better be moved to 'winter1 quarters fast.
Nidularium - These are quite happy outside as long as some protection is provided, and they are given subdued light and plenty of moisture. Nidularium fulgens does well in bright light,
Ochagavia - Need the same conditions as the Deuterocohnias, Dyckias etc. I have doubled the growth of O. carnea by removing it from a four inch (10cm) pot and planting it in a 3 gallon (?) container and giving it plenty of water in a slightly protected area with bright light. It now has leaves without the brown tips and is very happy. Orthophytum - Most of these are very hardy plants and do well in protected areas. They need bright light and plenty of water. They also seem happier in large containers than four inch (10cm) pots.
Pitcairnia - If I can provide a swamp area, these plants are very happy, otherwise, forget itl They like some protection and I have even grown them literally sitting in water. I can't understand how anyone could say these are 'dry growing' plants. If they even look like they are going to get dry, they have given me problems.
Portea - These are great - they will grow in full sun perfectly happily. They don't seem to mind the cold, the heat or anything else as long as they have sufficient water and air. They don't need any protection and readily set offshoots.
Puya - Those that have done well for me have been grown under much the same conditions as Dyckias etc. They like lots of room for growing and plenty of water. They don't necessarily need any protection and they will take full sun.
Quesnelia - Seem to be happy wherever you put them and do well outside. That doesn't mean the plants will be in 'show' shape when they flower. It has always seemed to me, that by the time Quesnelia testudo or arvensis are ready to flower, the plants look as though something terrible has happened to them. I have seen some that were grown in greenhouses that were in much better condition, but the inflorescences were not any prettier! Some of these plants are so large that it is great that they will grow outside.
9
Ronnbergia - The only one of these that I have attempted to grow is petersii, and if it is an example of Ronnbergia, you need a greenhouse. It seems to be very allergic to cold or even semi-cold. However I have managed to, at least partially, acclimate a few seedlings. I started with nearly a hundred and about ten survived my growing conditions. They have been grown in a cold greenhouse. Streptocalyx - Again, this is a genus that requires more of a greenhouse atmosphere. There is one available in the trade under 'species' that is quite hardy and does well, but on the whole, the majority is not fond of the great outdoors in my area.
Tillandsia - The majority of these do well - looking best when given a little protection. There are a very few that are 'finicky' and turn up their toes i.e. biflora and crispa for example. They seem to grow in most areas of my yard with no problems.
Vriesea - These are the most surprising plants of all the bromeliads. I can remember, years ago when I was a neophyte, that I was told that to grow vrieseas I must have a greenhouse - they were very tender -but through the years I have found this to be a fallacy. Several years ago, we had the coldest winter I can ever remember in Southern California and guess which genus survived the weather with the least problems? Vrieseas!! Even those which had little or no protection had very little damage, if any at all. They will, in many instances, also take more light than some seem to think. As a matter of fact it will, in some cases, bring out colour in the leaves that one usually does not see.
Reprinted from 'The Bromeliad Hobbyist'. (First reprinted in the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand Journal October 1991, March, April 1992.)
WORKSHOP FOR NEW MEMBERS
             Free tuition - learn how to take pups off Bring your plant with you & share ideas
WHERE: Des Yeates - 158a Henderson Valley Road Telephone (09) 838-6535 WHEN: Sunday 2nd April at 1pm
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11
SHOW JUDGING REVIEW 2000
Dave Anderson
   Congratulations to all those members who exhibited plants in this year's show. The standard of the entries was high with over three hundred plants exhibited in the twenty-six classes.
   The judging for this year's show was the same as last year in that it was split into three sections, namely the Tillandsias (6 classes), Artistic and Floral Arrangements (4 classes) and the remaining Bromeliads (16 classes), with different judges for each section.
  The standard of plants being very high made the competition very close. Perhaps it would be worth considering awarding plants in future shows instead of having first, second and third? A basic premise that many people fail to understand is that the Bromeliad Society International Handbook on judging, stipulates that the plant should be judged against how that plant should optimally be grown. That is, a plant with high markings does not automatically win its class.
SHOW RESULTS Olive Allan Trophy - Best Plant of the Show David Anderson... Tillandsia xerographica hybrid Len Trotman Plate - Most points in the Show Peter Waters
Bronze Neoregelia Trophy - Best Neoregelia Peter Waters...Neoregelia carcharodon (class 8)
Fiji Trophy - Best Tillandsia
David Anderson...Tillandsia xerographica hybrid (class 14)
The Australian Trophy - Best Guzmania or Vriesea Peter Waters...Guzmania sanguinea 'Tricolor' (class 17)
Dephoff Trophy - Best Novice
Clive Burkett...Fascicularia pitcairniifolia (class 21)
Em Bailey Trophy - Best Bromeliad Arrangement Gill Keesing...(class 24)
Pat Sweeney Trophy - Best Floral Arrangement Jenny Gallagher...(class 25)
Previous page - Clockwise from top left - Bromeliad arrangement, Dish Garden, Decorative Container, Floral Arrangement.
Opposite - Top- Miniature (19), Middle- Novice blooming (21) Bottom- Guzmania blooming (5). Photos: Graham Alderson
12
13
SHOW RESULTS - continued
Class:
1 - Aechmea
blooming
2 - Aechmea
foliage
  -| St
 2nd
 3rd.
  /| St 2^id 3rd.
 1st.
 nd
3 - Billbergia
2
3rd.
4 - Cryptanthus 1st.
3rd.
5 - Guzmania
blooming
6 - Guzmania
foliage
7 - Neoregelia
blooming
8 - Neoregelia
foliage
9 - Nidularium
10- Tillandsia
s/s blooming
11- Tillandsia small foliage
12- Tillandsia medium blooming
13- Tillandsia medium foliage
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd.
  -j st
 2nd
 3rd.
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd.
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd.
 1st.
 2nd
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd.
 1st.
 2nd
 3rd.
.Len Trotman ..Peter Waters .Gerry Stansfield .Win Shorrock ..Peter Waters .Jenny Gallagher .Peter Waters ..Gill Keesing ..Peter Waters .Joe Murray ..Joe Murray .Peter Waters .Peter Waters ..Len Trotman .Peter Waters .Peter Waters ..Len Trotman ..Len Trotman .Owen Paton ..Peter Waters ,.H & G Cooke .Peter Waters ..Owen Paton ..Len Trotman .Peter Waters ..Gay McDonald ..Peter Waters .David Anderson ..Win Shorrock .Marie Healey ..Win Shorrock ..Johanna Elder ..Graham Alderson ..Graham Alderson ..Brian Dawson ..Win Shorrock ..Peter Waters
Ae. fasciata 'Morgana'
Ae. chantinii x fendleri Ae. fasciata 'Super Auslese' Ae. orfandiana 'Ensign'
Ae. nudicaulis 'Seidelii'
Ae. Mirlo Bill. Arribella Bill. Kahibah
Bill. Ralph Graham French Crypt. Old Gold Crypt. San Juan Crypt. Cascade Guz. sanguinea brevipedicellata Guz. Tiffany Guz. Magnifica Guz. sanguinea Tricolor1 Guz. Peacockii Guz. Gisela Neo. Charm Neo. concentrica 'Albomarginata' Neo. Manoa Beauty Neo. carcharodon Neo. Beta x Magnifica Neo. Takemura Grande Nid. scheremetiewii Nid. fulgens 'Orange Bract' Nid. procerum kermesianum Till, leiboldiana Till, mallemontii Till, edithiae Till, plagiotropica Till, atroviridipetala Till, rhomboidea Till, simulata Till, paucifolia Till, tenuifolia Till, seleriana
..Win Shorrock Till, recurvifolia subsecundifolia
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Class:
14- Tillandsia large blooming
15- Tillandsia large foliage
16- Vriesea blooming
17- Vriesea foliage
18- Bigeneric or other genus
19- Miniature
20- Variegated
21- Novice blooming
22- Novice foliage
23- Dish or tray or novelty
24- Bromeliad arrangement
25- Floral or artistic arrangement
26- Decorative container
 1
 St
 nd
2
3rd
1st
2'
3rd.
 /j St
2nd
 nd
.David Anderson .Win Shorrock .Win Shorrock .Peter Waters ..Win Shorrock .Win Shorrock .Graham Alderson .Peter Waters 3rd...Bev Ching 1st...Peter Waters 2nd...Len Trotman
1 =,..Gill Keesing 1= ..Len Trotman 3rd...Peter Waters 1st...H&G Cooke 2nd...Peter Waters 3rd...Peter Waters 1st...Len Trotman 2nd...Gill Keesing 3rd...Win Shorrock
1st...Clive Burkett 2nd...Carol Davis 3rd...Carol Davis 1st...Carol Davis 2nd...Carol Davis 1st...Barbara Murray 2nd...Jenny Gallagher 3rd...H&G Cooke 1st...Gill Keesing 2nd... Rosemary Thomas 3rd...Barbara Murray 1st...Jenny Gallagher 2nd...Barbara Murray 3rd...Tristan Melling 1st...Jenny Gallagher 2nd...Gill Keesing 3rd...Owen Paton
Till, xerographica hybrid
Till, rotundata
Till, leiboldiana
Till, jaliscomonticola
Till, secunda
Till, imperialis
Vr. saundersii x Poelmannii
Vr. hybrid
Vr. hybrid
Vr. Red Chestnut x gigantea Vr. Hawaiian Suriset x fenestralis Orthophytum gurkenii Androlepis skinneri Canistrum seidelianum Neo. Fireball x ampullacea Neo. Fireball x ampullacea Neo. Chiquita Linda Neo. Raphael Neo. carolinae tricolor Neo. carolinae x Painted Lady Fascicularia pitcairniifolia Nid. fulgens Neo. concentrica Ae. Aztec Gold Neo. Burnsie's Spiral
15
SHOW TIME
Louise Joyce
   Not quite nine thirty on Saturday morning and already members of the public were hovering at the entrance to Mt Albert hall for the Society's Show. Several of the volunteers who were allowed a specific number of plants from the sales tables were watched with envious eyes as they carried the plants outside to their cars. Plenty more inside, I reassured them.
   I was one of group of members who had volunteered to help on the two sales tills, a new feature along with the tear-off price tags which, as we were to discover, worked incredibly well.
   Come opening time and a trickle of people quickly turned into a flood with one united aim... the sales tables. Most seemed to ignore the beautifully laid out display and award winning plants and rushed to their goal. One minute the stage was bare, the next it was groaning under the weight of scores of people.
   Within nanoseconds (it seemed like that) a queue stretched right across the back of the hall to where we were waiting at the sales till. People, their arms full of plants, many packed into plastic bags, others crammed into large boxes, were keen to spend their money.
   Goodness knows how many plants went across the table but for two hours or more, we removed plants from boxes and bags (next time I'll wear elbow length gloves to avoid being scratched), ripped off labels and repacked. The till never stopped opening and shutting.
   Every now and again one of us would raise our eyes to scan the queue and then groan because in spite of going as fast as we could, the length of the queue remained unchanged. Some people even came back two or three times with more purchases as their receipts allowed them re-entry to the show.
  Eventually the pressure eased and we were able to mop our sweating brows and it was good to see a large number of people looking at the display plants.
   There is no doubt that bromeliads are popular. I believe one person made out a cheque for just over a thousand dollars!
(Continued on page 21)
Opposite: top - Guzmania foliage (6), middle - Billbergia (3) bottom - Neoregelia blooming (7)
Photos: Graham Alderson
17
18
UP WHANGAREI WAY
Sue Schatzdorfer
   On Sunday 27th February, 40 odd members (figuratively speaking, of course) of the Bromeliad Society had a lovely trip up Whangarei way.
   We started remarkably early (for old trouts like me!) on Sunday morning and Blue Bussed to the Green's garden in - hang on while I look up the word - Maungakaramea - phew!
   Although I have grown bromeliads for about ten years, this was my first visit to a commercial nursery and what a delight it was. Not only were the arrangements and varieties of bromeliads exciting, but what I found most interesting was a magnificent tropical garden. The variety of plants was outstanding; palms, cycads, vireyas, bauhinias, bananas, Dutchman's Pipe and a tricky tree with antlers, just to name a few.
   I believe the Greens have been on their 11/2 acres for just eight years - makes me wonder what I have been doing in my garden for so long! Their tropical plants were growing so well, that even though their summers may not be hotter than Auckland, their winters may be a degree or two warmer hence the growth of the more tender types. I'm just pondering - actually I'm just jealous!
   There was so much to look at - numerous tastefully designed small gardens and not a straight line in sight - "makes for exciting lawn mowing" said Keith. What a friendly couple - so knowledgeable and so welcoming.
   Lunch we took at the Whangarei Falls, a nice spot. The highlight of the sojourn being two Local Unlikely Lads jumping right down the very high Falls! Eh bien, the joys of youth.
  Next we visited the home of Avon and Barbara Ryan in Whangarei. This was an eye opener, as I had never seen so many bromeliads in one place at one time. No need to worry about lawn mowing at all here! Again we were made to feel very welcome - first we were treated to excellent sales of numerous bromeliads at very wallet-friendly prices. Then we were given a lovely afternoon tea, which was most welcome on an exceptionally hot afternoon.
   A most enjoyable day's outing. Let's hope it's not the last.
Top: Maureen Green (in bandeau) and Owen Bird talking seriously. Bottom: Taking a close look at Avon Ryan's amazingly large hybrids. Photos: Brian Dawson
19
BEWARE OF PLANT THIEVES!
Laurie Dephoff
   How is your security these days? Mine has become a little lax, due to the hot summer nights, so I have been in the habit of leaving the glasshouse doors open to let in more air.
   So I have only myself to blame for having a nocturnal visit from plant thieves, who removed some of my largest and best bromeliads from outside my bedroom. The shadehouse is here also, but as it is made of shadecloth and plastic netting, it is unlockable. Some large plants had spent about twelve months out here, along with a lot of tillandsias - some singles, some clumps. I don't know how many went or what they were with one exception - a ponga stick about 40cm long, which was home to about 30 Tillandsia ionantha plants. These have probably been stripped off as single plants now.
   I will try and describe the best bromeliads taken in case they turn up at a flea market or something similar.
   (1) Vriesea fosteriana rubra from seed, about 100cm diameter with long reddish-brown leaves, cross-banded with green stripes.
   (2) Vriesea friburgensis paludosa x Vriesea platynema variegata, about 90cm with shorter mid-green leaves, reddish underneath. This had a 120cm inflorescence which had been broken off and thrown under a seat. This was one of my own hybrid seedlings - only one left!
   (3) Guzmania squarrosa about 80cm wide with dull greenish-brown leaves.
   The larger plants were all single heads, non-spiny and, except for number 2, were not in flower. I found one label outside on the footpath and a cycad still behind the wall. A hanging basket of Neoregelia pauciflora was sitting on the lawn.
   The attack took place between 6pm on February 27th and 6am on February 28th.
   I suppose other members have passers-by calling in to look at the garden. If they seem genuine there is no harm done but if you have any doubts, say no and/or note down a vehicle registration number as a precaution.
# Other members - please let the Society know about thefts.
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COMMENT: It is the most extraordinary coincidence that these thefts occurred only just over four weeks after Laurie's article on vrieseas, which included descriptions of the very plants stolen. Apart from a cycad taken approximately three years ago, it is six years since Laurie has lost plants, and then it was cacti. It would seem that the thief (thieves) have possibly obtained access to our journal, and are probably stealing to order.
 the BRoraeLfciDs haoe ajon I
I can no longer look after all I have so some must go.
On April 1s I will have an open day - 10am to 4pm.
                   Prices are low and the plants are good. Address is 279 Mt. Wellington Highway
(Continued from page 17)
  Mind you, I could have spent that much money. As a bromeliad beginner I found it very hard to resist "'just one more plant" when I gravitated towards the sales tables during breaks. I arrived home on Saturday with an armful of plants and did the same on Sunday. Trading was not as busy as the previous day, which alas, gave me plenty of time to discover more plants, which I just had to have.
   However it was an enjoyable two days. It gave me the opportunity to meet and talk to club members and it enabled me to do something for the club. The show is also a wonderful insight as to what can be achieved with bromeliads. So sign up next year to help out ... it's a lot of fun!
Bea hanson
opposite Burger King. If too wet, same time on Sunday.
21
TO THE EDITOR
   Peter Waters' reply to the queries by Laurie Dephoff about the variability of his Little Harv cultivars, raises some interesting points.
   As cultivars do not come true from seed, how can plants be sold under the registered cultivar name when they only have the same parents in common? In the case of Little Harv, this was Aechmea chantinii x Aechmea rubens and that surely is what should be on the identification tag. The chances of duplicating the original registered cultivar must be mind bogglingly few. So a true Little Harve (and this applies to all other cultivars) can only be reproduced by offshoots, or in quantity, only by tissue culture.
  In other areas, this fraudulent practice would result in a prosecution under the Trade Descriptions Act. How depressing to develop an interesting plant, name it and register it only to see quantities of usurpers taking its place.
Brassed-off Buyer
# The Editor is delighted to receive letters, especially controversial ones. Unless otherwise specified, all will be published anonymously - not even a nom-de-plume is required.
Special notice...The Bromeliad Show created much interest from Auckland and out of town members for Shane Zaghini's 'Bromeliads, A Guide to the Beautiful Neoregelia'. You can send away for this very interesting book by writing to:
Shane Zaghini, 9 Walkens Road, Everton Hills, Brisbane, Australia 4053.
The cost is A$23.00, which you can get from your bank. Please note that, like us, $5.00 is the smallest note so you have to send A$25.00. It is still the cheapest way to get a really worthwhile book.
MEMBERS CORNER - Bromeliads wanted for buying, swapping or selling. Send details to the Editor. No charge!
Aechmea bromeliifolia var. rubra & Hechtia texenensis.
Buy or swap.-.Gerry Stansfield... Phone (09) 834-7178
22
BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
  The February 2000 meeting was attended by thirty people. The display table was full of beautiful plants, the competition section offered nice plants and the sales table had many plants offered for sale.
   The bus trip to Auckland is on Sunday March 19th leaving at 7am with visits to four people organised. Take lunch and drinks.
   April 1st and 2nd are the Te Puke Orchid Show days, where we can stage a bromeliad display and sales table.
Competition plants were:
1st - Johanna Elder - 0rthophytum gurkenii.
2nd - Kevin Scholium - Aechmea Mirlo variegata.
3rd - Bertha Scholium - Vriesea Splendriet
  The display plants were most attractive, among them being -Billbergia Vesuvius (Audrey Hewson), Vriesea Red Chestnut x platynema (Des Young), Neoregelia marmorata x wilsoniana (Isabel Clotworthy), Aechmea nudicaulis 'Silver Streak' (Bertha Scholium).
   The raffle plants were won by Margaret Mangos & Gay Bambery. Kevin Scholium
  The March meeting was attended by 27 members for our Annual General Meeting. Officers for the year were elected:
   President - Isabel Clotworthy Vice-president - Gay Bambery Secretary - Barry Jones Treasurer - Lynley Roy
   Committee - Elizabeth Bailey, Margaret Craig, Johanna Elder, Margaret Mangos, Bertha and Kevin Scholium.
Competition plants were:
1st - Kevin Scholium - Vnesea fosteriana 'White Chestnut'
2nd = Isabel Clotworthy - Aechmea blumenavii
2nd = Margaret Mangos - Tillandsia Athena
3rd = Bertha Scholium - Neoregelia Fosperior Perfection
3rd = Johanna Elder - Guzmania Mini Exodus
   Display plants of note were Vriesea vagans (Isabel Clotworthy), Vriesea Little Chief (Gay Bambery), Vriesea platynema variegata (Kevin Scholium), Neoregelia Gold Fever (Bertha Scholium).
Kevin Scholium
NEXT MEETING: April 12th with committee meeting at 12 noon.
23
NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
   February's meeting was held on a scorching summer's day at Robyn Armstrong's home, overlooking Whangarei Harbour. Robyn and her partner Gregg have landscaped their large, sloping section with palms, lots of vireya rhododendrons and other sub-tropical plants as well as renovating their lovely old villa. Robyn does not have a huge collection of bromeliads, but she is working on it! As soon as she gets a bit more shade as their palms grow, she will have an ideal situation for bromeliads.
   We had fourteen members at our meeting, with apologies from several others. Freda Nash had brought along a nice Tillandsia leiboldiana var. guttata in flower for Maureen to identify, as well as a very lovely Tillandsia Anita in flower (it must be a close relative of Tillandsia cyanea).
   An interesting discussion on the rules and regulations of importing plants and seeds took place, with Maureen and Keith Green telling us of many frustrating times they have had with the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Jacqui O'Connell
NEXT MEETING: Will be held at the home of Bruce and Lorraine Walden, 22 Charlotte Street, Dargaville, on Sunday March 26th at 1:30pm.
MAUAO FLOWERS BROMELIADS
We have a large selection of superb quality potted bromeliads including Acanthostachys, Aechmea, Alcantarea, Billbergia, Canistropsis, Cryptbergia, Dyckia, Guzmania, Neoregelia, Nidularium, Pitcairnia, Puya, Quesnelia, Tillandsia, Vriesea.
FAX (07) 572-1995 or post to PO Box 1154, TAURANGA for our colour catalogue.
We travel frequently, so can visit your garden with up to 120 varieties in the van to choose from.
   Phone 021-968-405 for an appointment to view the plants.
24
 Acanthostachys - strobilacea
 Aechmea - aquilega, bracteata, bromeliifolia, coelestis var. coelestis, fraseri, lueddemanniana 'Alvarez', recurvata var. ?
 Alcantarea ■ geniculata
 Billbergia - brasiliensis, rosea, viridiflora, vittata, zebrina
 Dyckia - Big Black, Bronze, chloristaminea, tuberosa, unknown
 Dyckia -
 ex. USA (BSI)
 Guzmania - lingulata (# was from variegata but will only germinate as var. lingulata)
 Nidularium - innocentii var. innocentii, or Wittrockia amazonica Pitcairnia - carinata, flammea var. roezlii, imbricata, tabuliformis Puya - mirabilis, venusta
 Tillandsia - bartramii, bulbosa, butzii, caliginosa, juncea, limbata, magnusiana, myosura, plagiotropica, pohliana, recurvata, tricholepis, tricolor
 Vriesea - bituminosa, corralina, gigantea, hieroglyphica, modesta, platynema (ex Trinidad), poelmannii, Rex hybrid, scalaris Germination is good on all seed.
    Special thanks to previous seedbank donors as we start a new list, but please keep up the good work. New seed received from Ken Woods, NSW, Harvey Beltz, BSI, USA, and Barry Jones, Te Puke. Also just a reminder that excess seed is sent to both Australia and the USA. So don't throw any away, as the more we send away the more we get back.
    Do have a go at raising bromeliads from seed. It is very easy. If you need further help, ring me or drop me a note. The seedbank has a good variety now and we will continue to add to it. So let's see a lot more trying their hands at seed raising.
 ORDERS with stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to: Gerry Stansfield, 7 Noall Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland. Telephone (09) 834-7178
25
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
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Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, P.O. Box 91-728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
Back issues of the journal are available from the Editor for $3.00 each post-paid.
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One third page (12-13 lines) $6.00 Advertisements must be bromeliad related.
At the Editor's discretion if too many received.
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the authors' own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
Printed By Balmoral Office Systems Phone (09)631-5693 Fax (09)623-7440
26
OFFICERS
PATRON & LIFE MEMBER HISTORIAN & LIFE MEMBER PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENTS
SECRETARY
TREASURER
EDITOR
LIBRARIAN
COMMITTEE
AUDITOR AHC DELEGATES LIFE MEMBERS
SCIENTIFIC OFFICER CULTIVAR REGISTRAR
Mrs. Bea Hanson Laurie Dephoff Lester Ching Des Yeates Graham West Dave Anderson Peter Waters Marjorie Lowe Des Yeates Bev Ching Glenys Guild Brian Dawson Gerry Stansfield Colin Gosse Patricia Sweeney, Harry Martin Patricia Perratt Patricia Sweeney Peter Waters Gerry Stansfield
   (09)527-6830
   (09)527-7789
   (09)576-4595
   (09)838-6535
   (09)298-3479
   (09)638-8671
   (09)534-5616
   (09)376-6874
(09)838-6535
   (09)576-4595
   (09)810-9669
   (09)837-4598
   (09)834-7178
Bev Ching
BACK COVER
Top left-Vriesea blooming (class 16)
          Vriesea saundersii x Poelmanii
Top right above - Tillandsia medium blooming (class 12) Tillandsia rhomboidea
Top right below - Tillandsia medium foliage (class 13) Tillandsia tenuifolia
Bottom - Vriesea foliage (class 17)
         Vriesea Red Chestnut x gigantea
Photos: Graham Alderson
27

 BROMELIAD
Society of New Zealand Inc.
May 2000 Vol.40 No.5
BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was formed on the 28th. August, 1962.
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation, propagation and control of diseases.
(b) To provide a library for members.
(c) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to encourage the importation of new plants.
(g) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar objects.
FRONT COVER
Tillandsia imperialis
   This bromeliad comes from the rain and cloud forests of central and southern Mexico at elevations of 2400-3000 metres. It grows high up on conifers and oaks as an epiphyte but also saxicolously on rock formations, in damp, cool and cloudy conditions with cool nights.
   Because I have a Mexican friend that I wanted to surprise at Christmas, I bought this plant from Patricia Perratt at the 1997 Show. It was about a year old, very healthy, in an attractive terracotta pot. As both Rauh (Bromeliad Lexicon) and Baensch (Blooming Bromeliads) said that it was difficult to grow, and heeding the habitat descriptions, I put it in the coolest place I could find - the southeast wall of my unit. For fast drainage, I placed it on top of the grille of the house drain and whenever I remembered, I gave it some fresh water making sure there was enough to penetrate the mix. As the plant was under the eaves, it did not receive much rain. With no further care, I left it to fend for itself in the Auckland climate (no frosts occur here). (Continued on page 9)
2
CONTENTS
4     From the President                     Graham West
5,6   April meeting news                   Dave Anderson
6     New members, Members corner                       
7,8   Lotusland                             Brian Dawson
9     Looking back                            Bea Hanson
10,11 Bromelia balansae                    Racine Foster
10,11 Turkish delight                       Peter Waters
12,13 Cold sensitivity of bromeliads       Andrew Steens
14-16 The unruly pitcairnias              Chet Blackburn
17    Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group       Kevin Scholium
17    To the editor                       Laurie Dephoff
18    Wellington Tillandsia Study Group      Phyl Purdie
19    Northland Bromeliad Group         Jacqui O'Connell
20    Basics for Beginners              Peniel Romanelli
21    Seedbank                          Gerry Stansfield
22    Meetings, membership, correspondence, journal.    
23    Officers                                          
23,24 Aechmea Shining Light              Graham Alderson
COMING EVENTS                                           
MAY                                                     
17th BOP garden visits - 10am - Anna Long, 38 Grammer Road, Katikati, then to Brian & Cushla Chudleigh, 35 Levley Lane. 21st Wellington Tillandsia Study Group - 1:30pm - Myra & Maurice Tarr, 32 Plunket Avenue, Petone.
21st Northland Bromeliad Group - Auckland trip to three gardens -meet 8am at the turnoff to the Green's.
23rd Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm-Fourth Tuesday Talk: Dark leafed plants
        Monthly plant competition: Miniature neoregelias
JUNE
6th Deadline for copy for the June Journal.
14th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - 1 pm at the Tauranga Yacht Clubrooms. Committee meeting at 12 noon.
25th Northland Bromeliad Group 27th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm Talk: Nidulariums
        Monthly plant competition: Vriesea fosteriana and hybrids
3
FROM THE PRESIDENT
   Well my first meeting is behind me now. There were a couple of glitches but I hope that we have solved them for the future.
   As everybody will have noticed, the nights have drawn in (only a month to the shortest day) and winter is now here. I have put up all my frost cloth in readiness, as I have been caught out with frosts in the past.
   At the last meeting there were fifty-nine members, six new members and some visitors. Regular members will need to bear with me as I explain each segment of the meeting to the new members and visitors. Five members volunteered to act as hosts at the meetings to ensure that new members and visitors are made to feel welcome.
   It was very pleasing to see so many plants, both reasonably priced and of good quality, on the trading table. Over the years, I have been concerned that the Bromeliad Society should avoid the trap that other societies have experienced. When a particular plant becomes popular (and fashionable) and is much sought after, it is so easy to let standards drop and to sell inferior material and/or charge inflated prices. This we should continue to avoid.
Graham
  STOP PRESS - STOP PRESS - STOP PRESS
OVERDUE SUBSCRIPTIONS
      For those whose subscriptions are now overdue, this will be the final issue of the Journal - marked with a red spot. To remain on the mailing list please send your renewal cheque to the Treasurer, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, Auckland. Please ignore the red spot if you have already paid.
MEMBERSHIP SURVEY
  Many of these have still to be returned. For an accurate overview of members' needs and preferences, a high return rate is necessary. Don't forget to add your comments on anything that interest you. If you haven't done it, do it NOW!!!
4
APRIL MEETING NEWS
   Sixty-five members attended the April meeting, which was held on a cool evening, indicating that winter was certainly not faraway.
   Peter Waters led the discussion on the Show & Tell plants. First up was Aechmea caudata 'Short Form' - a very nice squat form of this species that Len Trotman had recently imported. Next was an Aechmea nallyi variegata, at least that is what the label said. However, Peter said that it was probably a hybrid called Ae. Julian Nally. Ae. nallyi is a large plant from the Amazon and is difficult to grow outside in Auckland's climate as it needs heat. Gerry Stansfield brought in a Vriesea hybrid with a single red spike that had yellow petals but no one could identify it. The next plant wanting a name was a Vriesea Komet, which was identified because of its narrow leaves. Joe Murray brought in Quesnelia lateralis that had three flower spikes coming from the base of the plant, one of the very few bromeliads with this habit. Peter exhibited a Billbergia morelii 'Margarita' that had a beautiful flower spike fully out, which like most billbergias, only lasts about a week. Lastly, Bev Ching had a dark leafed Neoregelia that was probably Neo. Grande 'Fantastic Gardens', a Neo. concentrica hybrid.
   Brian Dawson gave a talk, accompanied by slides, on Lotusland, the unusual garden of the late Madame Ganna Walska, now a nonprofit, educational institution. See pages 12 &13.
   The special raffle prize this month was won by Rosemary Thomas with the door prizes going to Lester Ching, Chris Paterson and Carol Wells.
COMPETITIONS
Open Flowering: 1st Peter Waters with Billbergia Poquito Mas and 2nd was Gerry Stansfield with Neo. carolinae x concentrica - a Skotak hybrid. Also in the competition were Neo. concentrica 'Maui', Ochagavia carnea, Guzmanias Irene & lingulata 'Cherry, Vrieseas elata & Corralina 'Rubra Superba'.
Open foliage: Peter Waters was 1st with Neo. Rosy Morn and 2nd was Gill Keesing with Neo. Fosperior Perfection. In the competition were Aechmeas fasciata & Ensign, Ananas comosus variegatus, Neo's. Yellow King, Royal Burgundy, Sanguine Night, Vulcan x carolinae and an Avon Ryan hybrid, Orthophytum gurkenii and a large Vriesea ospinae 'Gruberi'.
5
Tillandsia: Len Trotman was 1st with Till, tectorum minuta and 2nd was Gerry Stansfield with Till, multicaulis. There were also on the table - crocata (a large and small form), viridiflora, stricta and rodrigueziana.
Plant of the month - Bigenerics: 1st was Peter Waters' Quesistrum Claudia, followed by Len Trotman's Neolarium Something Special. In the competition were Neomea Magenta Star & Powder Puff, Neophytum Ralph Davis & Burgundy Hill and Neolarium Garnet. Novice flowering: 1st was Peter Brady with Tillandsia imperialis who was also 2nd with an Aechmea recurvata hybrid. Also in the competition were Neo. Burle Marxii F2, concentrica and marmorata, Nidularium rutilans and Orthophytum gurkenii.
Novice foliage: 1st was Kevin Kilsby with Alcantarea imperialis and 2nd was Chris Paterson with Aechmea orlandiana 'Ensign' together with an Ananas. Also in the competition were Neos. Red Gold and Fosperior Perfection.
Best plant of the month: Peter Waters with Billbergia Poquito Mas. Congratulations to all the winners. Dave Anderson
NEW MEMBERS
Borlase, Christine, 3007 S.H.30, RD2, Whakatane.
Fox, Joyce, Main Road, RD2, Tuakau.
Haughey, Geoffrey, 3 Westridge Road, Titirangi, Ak.
Hawthorn, Christine, RD3, Kerikeri.
Jackson, Murray, 63 Connaught Street, Blockhouse Bay, Ak.
Jones, Rachael, 525a Mt. Albert Road, Three Kings, Ak.
Richardson, Jean, Braemar Road, RD2, Whakatane.
Robertson, Paul, Rainbow Falls Road, RD2, Kerikeri.
MEMBERS CORNER
Bromeliads wanted for buying, swapping or selling. Send details to the Editor. No Charge!
Guzmania lindenii (transverse bands)
Buy...Kevin Kilsby...Phone (09)846-8954 Aechmea ramosa (red form), Nidularium seidelii Buy...Marjorie Lowe...Phone (09)376-6874 Neoregelia 'Rosy Morn'
Buy...Rita Watson...Phone(09)410-5800
6
APRIL TALK WITH SLIDES
Lotusland Brian Dawson
   In August 1999, I was fortunate to make a second visit to Lotus-land. The purpose of the Ganna Walska Lotusland Foundation is to preserve and enhance the spectacular collections of exotic plants and to foster increased knowledge and appreciation of the importance of plants and the need for their conservation.
  Originally a lemon nursery, Madame Ganna Walska experimented with bold forms and unusual colour combinations. A series of gardens draws the visitor from surprise to surprise through a delightful labyrinth of landscape adventures. She worked with eminent landscapers at first and then later, horticulturists, to renovate the aloe, cactus and succulent gardens and to create a new cycad garden. Her enthusiasm for rare specimens has left an unrivalled botanical treasure - some of the plants are now extinct in the wild.
   The classic features of Lotusland are the Outdoor Theatre, the Topiary Garden, the twenty five foot Floral Clock, the Neptune Fountain, the Formal Parterre and the hedge allees - these remain much as Madame Walska knew them. Her large botanical collection of agaves, aloes, bromeliads, cacti and other succulents, cycads, ferns and palms are continually improved and added to. Gardens that have been added include the Australian Garden, the Japanese Garden, the Water Garden (made from the original swimming pool and filled with lotus) and the Blue Garden.
  The tours are led by docents and take about two hours. No straying is allowed, a steady speed is maintained and tripods, picnics and children under ten are banned. All tours are by phone reservation only and are accepted one year prior to the month requested.
  The docents tell you about Madame Walska's unusual and interesting life. She was an opera singer and socialite who had seven husbands (mostly rich), enabling her to indulge her tastes. She bought the estate in Montecito in 1941 and died there in 1984.
   Her taste for rarities is said to have led her to sell her jewels (over US$1,000,000) to purchase plants such as the rarest, Encephalartos woodii. All of the known examples of this plant derive from a single specimen discovered in South Africa and planted in the Durban Botanic Garden in 1904. Many of the plants collected from the Arizona Desert and sold to her, are now the only ones in existence. Although they fascinated her, she did not learn their botanical names.
   Beneath the Live Oaks (evergreen Quercus agrifolia) near the side of the house in the Bromeliad Garden, are the bromeliads which were originally bought from Hummel's Exotic Gardens, in Carlsbad, Germany and from Fritz Kubish's Jungle Plants & Flowers in Culver City, USA. On the terraces are two tillandsia trees, one of them made from iron. Next to the open air theatre (with antique stone statues from Madame's French Chateau Gallery) in a far corner of the lawn, is the former jungle area which was planted with excess pups from the Bromeliad Garden and added to with new plants to create a larger bromeliad garden in the shade of Live Oaks, with Dyckias and Puyas in full sun.
   Here is an excerpt from the Lotusland Newsletter, written by Mike Iven -
  "Santa Barbara's climate is suitable for the cultivation of bromeliads in the landscape. In fact, Lotusland's mass plantings of colourful bromeliads with their graceful shapes and unusual textures under a canopy of oaks (Quercus agrifolia) are the favourite gardens of many visitors. The bromeliad collection should be even more spectacular this year due to a couple of recently completed cultural improvement projects.
  The foliage of oak trees is necessary for photosynthesis and shades the branches from the heat of the sun, which can cause sunscald. The bromeliads on the other hand, need as much light as possible to encourage better colour of foliage and inflorescence, but can burn if the light is too hot or too intense. A recent trimming of the oaks in the bromeliad garden was completed, to improve light conditions for the under story plantings, while maintaining sufficient oak foliage for tree health.
   Providing nutrients in the proper proportions for the bromeliads will be possible, now that the bromeliad garden irrigation systems have been isolated from the main lawn 'fertigation' system. Over fertilising, especially too much nitrogen, can cause a greening of some bromeliads. Plants may grow leggy and lose their colour and variegation. Micro-dosing nutrients through the 'fertigation' system over the past year has been very beneficial to the main lawn, but provided more nutrients than the bromeliads require. Separating the main lawn and the bromeliad gardens' irrigation lines, improves the cultural conditions, leading to healthier plants and a better display"
  The tour has encompassed two miles of exotic gardens quite unlike any other. See it if you can, but remember that you have to book a year in advance!
8
LOOKING BACK NEWSLETTER
November 1965
   Many bromeliads can stand no end of neglect. Take, for instance, a certain little Neo. sarmentosa v. chlorosticta (now Neo. chlorosticta) It was taken off the mother plant and put aside to be given away. The person who was to take it, forgot all about it and the plant lay on a bench for a week or so. Then, somehow it must have been knocked onto the ground, where it was walked on by a number of heedless feet. When its owner found it, it was squashed flat and very withered. It was put into a glass of water and left for some days, then taken out and planted in peat and put under a bench in a shadehouse. The poor plant looked a little better though it did seem to be perhaps just a little less squashed. Time went by and it still looked sick, but wouldn't you if you were half-dead but were managing to produce an offset? For that is what it did and today the offset is a very handsome plant.
Can't keep a good 'brom.' down!
Bea Hanson
(Continued from page 2)
  The Tillandsia imperialis had red tips to the leaves, but by December 1999, red blotches were appearing all over the outer and inner leaves so I realised that it was coming into flower. It was duly given as a Christmas present, with instructions to ring me the moment the inflorescence appeared. It came in early February, gorgeously bright, and a week into March the flowers came. The plant was now 70cm across with the spike 32cm in height and the height overall almost 50cm.
   Len Trotman says that the bright colour lasts for approximately two months or more and then it fades slowly. At six months the inflorescence is still striking. He finds that it does better outdoors in bright light to intensify the colour.
   In Mexico, these plants are offered in the markets at Christmas time, Known commonly as 'Christmas Candles', they are used for decoration at the festivities. But there is a twist to this tale. Four years to flower and hoping that the flowering would coincide with Christmas, I proffered my plant present only to find that my Mexican friend had never seen nor heard of this traditional Mexican offering!!! (Mind you, she adores it).
Photo/text: Marjorie Lowe
9
A SENSATIONAL BROMELIAD
Racine Foster
   Due to the nature of the beast, not too many people grow Bromelia balansae. It has somewhat savage qualities and, if you get hooked by its spines, you might agree that it seems to be aggressively belligerent. The spines, curved in both directions, mean to keep an intruder away from its magnificent inflorescence and tasty fruit.
   Some of us who live in a warm climate and are foolish enough to grow Bromelia balansae outside, soon learn to grumble at it. By sending out long stolons, this bromelia propagates rapidly, creating an interlocking mass of moss-green, three foot (90cm) leaves edged with hooked barbs often described as vicious. If a finger or a leg gets caught on a barb, inevitably, as you try to extricate yourself, the neighbouring barb catches you from the other direction.
   To work with it you must wear heavy, long gloves and stout boots. For tools, you need an axe mainly as well as long handled loppers. Equipped in this manner you may feel very belligerent yourself as you try to stop its rampant growth!
   And then, when you see a plant in bloom, all anger dissipates. You are spellbound with wonder at the amazing spectacle. The "Heart of Flame" is quietly but sturdily thrusting upward a tower of cotton' filled with maroon flowers which are protected by its bracts that look like red darts in the middle of a leaf-fountain splashed with scarlet. A dazzling display! A sensational bromeliad!
   Reprinted from the BSI Journal, Volume 40 Number 6.
Photo: Laurie Dephoff TURKISH DELIGHT
   My wife was travelling through Turkey last year and came upon an interesting sight in a local market. She immediately recognised a nice specimen of Guzmania Cherry. When she enquired about it, the stall owner pointed to a tray of bulbs which surrounded the bromeliad and explained that this was the resulting flower.
   Whereupon Jeanette burst out laughing and pulled out the camera to record this example of deception. The Turk became quite irate at this point and chased them away.
Photo: Jeanette Waters Text: Peter Waters
10
COLD SENSITIVITY OF BROMELIADS
Andrew Steens
   Last winter was relatively mild, as were the two winters previously. However if we remember back to pre 1998, when weather conditions changed from El Nino to La Nina, winters have been considerably colder. This winter is shaping up to be reasonably warm, but before we become complacent, unusual cold snaps can occur. I can recall in 1994, a series of frosts occurred right up to the top of the North Island. At the time, I was consultant to many cut flower growers in the Northland area and fielded many calls from growers puzzled as to why their flower crops went black overnight. These growers had never seen a frost in their area before and so had no frost protection systems in place.
   Bromeliads are surprisingly hardy. Many people think of them as tropical plants which are unable to be grown outdoors in most areas of New Zealand. In fact, many bromeliads can survive frosts of -7C, which we have recorded in the early 1990's in gardens with plants such as Aechmea apocalyptica, Bilibergia nutans, Canistropsis (Nidularium) billbergioides and more. On the other hand, Guzmania zahnii variegata will start showing cold spots when the night temperatures drop below 10C.
   Cold sensitivity is variable though. It is affected by the state of the plant (for example its nutrient status), the light levels and the temperatures leading up to the cold period. Placement of the plants in the garden has a marked effect, with overhanging foliage or proximity to a building being quite beneficial. Also, the duration of the cold period and the moisture level of the air have an impact.
   Even in a greenhouse some of these factors are important. Increasing the cold resistance of your plants will allow you to decrease the heating level, reducing your costs. Factors such as correct nutrition, light levels and air movement, are all important in greenhouse situations. Leading into the winter, it is good practise to prepare your plants by cutting back on nitrogen fertilisers. Consider applying foliar feeds which are high in potassium and low in nitrogen.
   Improve air movement and light levels by reducing the amount of
12
 overhead shade (without exposing the plants to frost) and prune away dense foliage surrounding your bromeliads. Consider which plants are most susceptible to cold, wet conditions and consider moving these to a bank, near a building or even indoors for the winter.
    Frosts occur most often around the full moon when the weather is settled, with little wind and clear skies. So keep an eye on the weather forecasts. If frost is predicted, set your alarm for at least 1/4 an hour before daybreak and start watering! Don't stop until at least % an hour after daybreak, when the sun starts to warm the plants (or later in shaded areas). Spraying water over plants is a long established method of preventing frost settling and is surprisingly effective.
    The following table provides a list of factors, which impact on the cold sensitivity of bromeliads:
FACTOR                 IMPACT   REASON                                
High nitrogen levels   Negative Lush growth with low resistance       
Low nutrient levels    Negative Poor resistance to cold               
(other than nitrogen)                                                 
Low light levels       Negative Weak, thin leaves                     
Wet soil               Negative Poor root growth                      
Poor air movement      Negative Cold wet air is trapped around the    
                                plants.                               
Lengthy cold period    Negative Over time, plant resistance is over¬  
                                come.                                 
Planting in hollows or Negative Cold air settles in low areas.        
valleys                                                               
Overhanging foliage    Positive Prevents frost settling on the foliage
                       Negative May restrict air movement.            
Close to buildings or  Positive Prevents frost settling and may hold  
fences                          heat overnight.                       
Planting on slopes     Positive Cold air drains away from high        
or banks                        points.                               
Planting among rocks   Positive Rocks hold heat overnight.            
    Dr. Dale W. Jenkins compiled a comprehensive table of bromeliad variety, cold sensitivity information which was published in the Sarasota Bromeliad Society Newsletter in December 1998.This should be included in the June issue together with an article on freeze resistant vrieseas.
13
THE UNRULY PITCAIRNIAS
Chet Blackburn
   Every family has a horse thief somewhere in its past. In fact, for many families horse thieves make up one or more branches of the family tree. In my family, they probably make up the whole damned canopy, but the point is that no family is without the occasional outsider who refuses to conform to traditions held by the rest of its family members - an outlaw who refuses to behave like every other member of the family.
   And so it is with bromeliads. The recalcitrant member of this otherwise stable family is the genus Pitcairnia. Pitcairnia and its unruly brother genus Pepinia do not always follow rules that "everyone knows" apply to bromeliads. This is in spite of the fact that Pitcairnia was one of the first bromeliad genera to evolve. Prove it you say? Let's just cite some examples.
...Maple trees are deciduous, tulips are deciduous, but "everyone knows" that bromeliads are not deciduous. Someone needs to explain that to the small group of Pitcairnias which annually shed their leaves to get through the dry season.
..."Everyone knows" that a bromeliad leaf consists of a blade and sheath. No one looks at a bromeliad expecting to see a leaf with a petiole. Yet some of the Pitcairnias can't even get this simple morphological adaptation right.
...The family Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Western Hemisphere -every member of the family but one species is found there. Care to guess which one is the solitary outcast?
..."Everyone knows" that one of the main characteristics for sorting out the three subfamilies of Bromeliaceae is the presence or absence of spines on the foliage. The subfamilies Bromelioideae and Pitcairnioideae have them. Tillandsioideae does not. Leave it to Pitcairnia to disrupt this comfortable scheme by some of its members having both types of leaves - spiny and spineless - on the same plant. Some even have spines at the bases of the leaf but none along the blades.
..."Everyone knows" that bromeliads do not like to be over-watered or grow in soggy soil. Yet there are Pitcairnias growing in the wild in what can only be described as sopping wet conditions.
Top: Pitcairnia flammea Photo: Laurie Dephoff
Bottom: Pitcairnia smithiorum
15
   Bromeliads, like orchids, are the subjects of rampant if not random hybridising. Hybridisers can't seem to pass a pair of blooming bromeliads without wondering what the offspring between them would look like. For example, there are only about 45 species of Cryptanthus but there are close to a thousand hybrids and cultivars listed. The differences between some of them are so small that "subtle" would even be too strong a word to use in describing them. There are fewer than 100 species Neoregelia species described, but there are a hundred pages of hybrids and cultivars (about 21 plants per page) listed in Don Beadle's Preliminary Listing of All Known Cultivar and Grex Names for the Bromeliaceae. Therefore, you would expect a huge genus like Pitcairnia, second only to Tillandsia in the number of species in the Bromeliad family, to have been hybridised and cultivated to high heaven, wouldn't you? Beadle lists eleven hybrids and no cultivars.
   Another compulsion of hybridisers is the creation of bigenerics. There is a lot of horticultural Dr Frankensteins among hybridisers, who are bent on creating new life forms, even if some of them turn out to be monsters. Navia is the genus closest to Pitcairnia, hence it is the most likely candidate for bigeneric dallying, but have you ever heard of an X Navicairnia? If even hybridisers ignore a genus, you know it must be a disreputable one.
   That bromeliad growers will collect almost anything is apparent by the fact that some of the bigenerics remain in collections. Why in the world would anyone want to grow an X Neomea Nebula for example? Still, as indiscriminate as we bromeliad collectors often are, do you know anyone who has as many as six of the 320 or so species of Pitcairnia in their collection?
   Not only are Pitcairnias and Pepinias a primitive bunch, but as shown above, they are an unruly one also. For the sake of simplicity in the discussion, no distinction is made between the genera Pepinia and Pitcairnia. Both were formerly included as subgenera of Pitcairnia but recently Pepinia has been elevated to the status of genus. However I might add that in his introduction to The Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials, Harry Luther remarks "Nomenclature problems continue to plague the resurrected genus Pepinia. A number of taxa that appear to belong in Pepinia have never been formally transferred from Pitcairnia"
   Why doesn't that surprise me?
Reprinted in part from the Bromeliad News, Sacramento Bromeliad Society, June 1996.
16
BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
   The April garden visit was to Gay Bambery's home for the first time, where we saw a beautifully laid out garden, with lots of bromeliads tucked into several shaded positions - then to Isabel Clotworthy, where we saw her growing collection. We then had lunch and socialised a little.
   It was decided that we would have no garden visits during the months of June, July and August because of indifferent weather. The May meeting was attended by thirty members and we decided to buy the book 'Tillandsias' by Paul Isley to add to our library.
   Competition results:- 1st Jo Elder with a Vriesea hybrid, 2nd Donna O'Toole with Vr. Purple Cockatoo and 3rd was Margaret Mangos with Neoregelia Burning Copper. The plant of the month brought forward a very good selection of miniatures of which Gay Bambery (Neo. Fireball) Natalie Simmonds (Neo. ampullacea) and Lynley Roy (Neo. Short & Sweet) were among the twelve entries. Display plants showed a better range than April, among them - Isabel Clotworthy -Nidularium innocentii var. lineatum, Bertha Scholium - Neo. Empress, Kevin Scholium - a clump of Neo. ampullacea, Audrey Hewson - Ae. purpureorosea, and Jo Elder - Till, fasciculata 'Hondurensis'.
  Raffle plants were won by Jean Richardson (Orthophytum gurkenii) and Christine Borlase (Neoregelia hybrid).
Kevin Scholium
NEXT MEETING: June 14th at 1pm (Committee Meeting at 12 noon) TO THE EDITOR
'LITTLE HARVE AGAIN'
   Acting on the suggestions of Andrew Steens in the April Journal, I de-potted the reddish plant of Aechmea Little Harve. The main roots did not have any sign of mealy bug, but when I detached the four offsets (not readily seen in the photograph), I found that two of them had an infestation of mealy bug in the lower leaves. Three of the offsets had roots of their own, so after cleaning everything, I now have five individual plants potted up. They will get a little bit of extra care to see if they will develop like their big brother, which is rapidly gaining in size. I will try to remember, Andrew, to report results at a later date.
Laurie Dephoff
17
WELLINGTON TILLANDSIA STUDY GROUP
   Nine members met on Sunday 26th March at the home of Ginny and Wayne Rastall, Paraparaumu.
   There were not many plants flowering in collections at this time of the year. On display were:
T. edithiae Bolivia with orange/red bracts, Vr. carinata with red bracts and yellow tubular flowers and T. punctulata grown in a container and showing the deep blackish-purple colouring at the base of the leaves. These three plants were all grown cool in a shadehouse with no extra heating during the frosts of Akatarawa!
A T. streptophylla brought in six months ago in flower was just ending its flowering. Puya alpestris, growing in a member's garden, had flowered and a photo was displayed. The flowers were a striking deep turquoise.
T. brachycaulos var. multiflora (now T. velutina) was deep pink on the top of the leaves while the leaves were flushed with white underneath. This was because of the trichomes (scales) which absorb moisture. All tillandsias have these but they are usually not so obvious. T. tricolor, growing in a pot, sits in a spot above a water trough. It had three flower spikes. It grew in a minimum temperature of 8C. T. guatemalensis (large form) was displaying a 60cm long orange bracted spike with pale blue flowers, and was very attractive. Vr/esea Poelmanii had produced an attractive red bract sheath with yellow flowers. T. harrisii had two spikes; the inflorescence began in the yellowish-green shades and turned orange later with blue-purple flowers. Two plants, one indoor and the other outdoors, were both flowering at the same time. Conditions had not altered their performance.
Other plants displayed were; T. paleacea hybrid with three spikes, T. albida with a long spike displaying greenish flowers, Racinae multiflora with a compound flower spike of green bracts and white flowers and T. stricta with six flowering spikes of a good pink. A plant brought in as T. compressa was identified as T. fasciculata v. venosispica by its slightly discernible veining on the bracts.
   Andrew Flower explained that he is busy setting up a web page, which can be visited on anwyl.com. Although not completed, it is worth a browse now.
  Members then viewed the garden where many bromeliads were growing well, both outdoors and in the three growing houses. Some of (Continued on the opposite page)
18
NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
  April's meeting was held at Maureen and Keith Green's at Maungakaramea with twenty members present. It included several new members as well as a most welcome visit from Isabel Clotworthy from the Bay of Plenty Group. The Green's garden was looking beautiful as usual, as we descended like a horde of locusts - cheque books and wallets at the ready. Some of us, who had pooled cars, filled up the boots and travelled home, getting prickly legs from bromeliads propped up between our feet. Every time we found a particularly luscious plant which we couldn't possibly live without, Maureen would come out with same comment that Len Trotman uses - "Sorry, that's not for sale - stock!!!"
  Maureen gave an interesting talk on the different types of tillandsias for the newer members, to show that they are not all silvery grey "air plants".
  The Popular Vote Competition was won by Freda Nash with a Vriesea Snow King. Iris Symonds was second with an Aechmea orlandiana 'Ensign Reverse' and Jacqui O'Connell was third with Billbergia Othello. The raffles were well patronised as usual.
   The May meeting will be a trip to three gardens in Auckland on Sunday 21st, meeting the Greens at their turnoff at 8am. June's meeting will be held at Jane Penney's at Toe Toe Road.
Jacqui O'Connell
TERRESTRIAL...growing in or on the ground EPIPHYTIC...growing on another plant for support not nutrients SAXICOLOUS...growing on or amidst rocks OR LITHOPHYTIC...any plant growing on the surface of rocks SAPROPHYTIC...growing on decaying vegetable matter PARASITIC...growing on or in a living organism, often injuring the host or even destroying it_
(continued)
Wayne's tillandsias, which had been growing in temperatures of 38C had done better when moved to a cool house.
Phyl Purdie MEMBERS NOTE
The next meeting date has been changed to 21st May at the home Myra and Maurice Tarr, 32 Plunket Avenue, Petone at 1;30pm.
19
BASICS FOR BEGINNERS
A QUICK GUIDE TO BROMELIAD PROBLEMS Peniel Romanelli
   Most bromeliads are fairly trouble-free, but problems do crop up. Some of the more common ones, along with some possible causes, are listed below:
Pale, bleached appearance:
Too much sun.
Poor colour:
Too much sun or fertilising (avoid fertilising neoregelias and billbergias).
Long floppy leaves:
Too much shade.
Brown or yellow leaf ends or edges:
Plant grown too dry - cold or heat damage - poor ventilation - mix or water has wrong pH (most bromeliads like an acidic mix).
Brown spots:
Watering in full sun - too much light - cold or heat damage - chemical burns (possibly caused by copper or arsenic from treated wood or misuse of pesticides). Never use oil based pesticides or those containing copper or arsenic.
Quilling (inner leaves stick together):
Little or no water in the cup.
Brown or mushy leaves at the base:
'Wet feet' as a result of over watering or potting too deep or bad drainage.
Holes in the leaves:
Snails, slugs, insects or watering in full sun.
Centre leaves loose, withered brown, or whitish & soft, with a smell that would choke a buzzard:
Crown rot - possibly a result of stagnant water or poor ventilation. It can be treated by pulling out the loose leaves, thoroughly rinsing the cup with clean water and filling the cup with a good systemic fungicide for about 1 hour. Drain, let the plant dry overnight, then refill with clean water. The plant probably won't bloom but you should get pups.
  Reprinted from the Bromeliad Advisory, Volume 39, Number 2, Bromeliad Society of South Florida.
20
 Aechmea - aquilega, bracteata, bromeliifolia, coelestis var. coelestis, dichlamydea v. trinitensis x Ae. fendleri, fraseri, lueddemanniana 'Alvarez', pittieri, recurvata var?, spectabilis Alcantarea - geniculata
  Billbergia > rosea, viridiflora, vittata, vittata hybrid, zebrina Catopsis - floribunda (Florida)
 Dyckia - brasiliana, brevifolia, chloristaminea, fosteriana (dark form), remotiflora, tuberosa, Dyckia (unknown) ex. USA (BSI).
 Guzmania - lingulata (was from variegata but will only germinate as var. lingulata)
 Nidularium -innocentii var. innocentii
 Pitcairnia - carinata, flammea var. roezlii, imbricata, tabuliformis Puya - mirabilis, venusta
 Tillandsia - bartramii, butzii, caliginosa, fasciculata (Florida) juncea, limbata, magnusiana, myosura, plagiotropica, pohliana, recurvata,
  tricholepis, tricolor, viridiflora
 Vriesea - bituminosa, Corralina, gigantea, modesta, platynema v. variegata, platynema (ex Trinidad), Poelmannii, Rex hybrid, scalaris Wittrockia - amazonica Germination is good on all seed.
 New seed received from Moyna Prince, Florida, Ken Woods, NSW, Harvey Beltz, BSI, USA, Kevin Kilsby, Auckland. Just a reminder that excess seed is sent to both Australia and the USA. So don't throw any away, as the more we send away the more we get back.
 • The seedbank will exchange two packets of 20 seeds for one (1) large packet of your seed. Make sure it is labelled correctly.
 • Please send in a large envelope.
 • Packets (of at least 20 seeds) are 50 cents.
 • Limited to two packets of seed per kind per member.
 ORDERS with large, stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to:
 Gerry Stansfield, 7 Noall Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland. Telephone (09) 834-7178
21
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS
New Zealand NZ$20.00 Ordinary
                   NZ$ 5.00 Associate (same household) Overseas NZ$25.00 Australia
                    NZ$30.00 United States and other overseas
Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, P.O. Box 91-728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
Back issues of the journal are available from the Editor for $3,00 each post-paid.
ADVERTISING RATES
One third page (12-13 lines) $6.00 Advertisements must be bromeliad related.
At the Editor's discretion if too many received.
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the authors' own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
Printed By Balmoral Office Systems Phone (09)631-5693 Fax (09)623-7440
OFFICERS
PATRON & LIFE MEMBER HISTORIAN & LIFE MEMBER PRESIDENT VICE-PRESIDENTS
SECRETARY
TREASURER
EDITOR
LIBRARIAN
COMMITTEE
AUDITOR AHC DELEGATES LIFE MEMBERS
SCIENTIFIC OFFICER CULT I VAR REGISTRAR
Mrs. Bea Hanson (09)527-6830
Laurie Dephoff (09)527-7789
Graham West (09)298-3479
Lester Ching (09)576-4595
Gerry Stansfield (09)834-7178
Dave Anderson (09)638-8671
Peter Waters (09)534-5616
Marjorie Lowe (09)376-6874
Des Yeates (09)838-6535
Bev Ching (09)576-4595
Gary Cooke (09)834-6110
Brian Dawson (09)837-4598
Kevin Kilsby (09)846-8954 Colin Gosse
Patricia Sweeney, Bev Ching
Harry Martin
Patricia Perratt
Patricia Sweeney
Peter Waters
Gerry Stansfield
BACK COVER
In the glasshouse -Aechmea Shining Light
(Aechmea fulgens discolor x Aechmea ramosa) It can be a medium or a large plant depending on growing conditions. This is quite a large plant, spanning 90cm across with approximately 36 leaves 6cm wide, medium red on the underside and lime-green on top.
   The red flower stem rises 70-80cm above the centre of the plant. At each red bract a branch appears. These are longer at the base, 28-30cm, progressively tapering towards the top. From each branch, many small branches grow carrying lots of 6-8mm flower bracts, yellow with red tips, and produce white flowers. The flowers die off to a black tip. The flower spike stays in good colour for many months as all the flower bracts turn to white berries.
   This cultivar is a very prolific producer of pups with six to eight pups from a good parent.
Photo/text: Graham Alderson
23

BROMELIAD
Society of New Zealand Inc.
September 2000 Vol.40 No.9
BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND (INC).
Affiliated with the Bromeliad Society International.
The Society was officially formed on the 28th. August, 1962.
The objects of the society are to encourage the cultivation and study of bromeliads grown indoors or outdoors and in particular -
(a) To promote discussion and arrange instruction on cultivation, propagation and control of diseases.
(b) To provide a library for members.
(c) To assist members to identify plants.
(d) To make awards for outstanding new bromeliads.
(e) To hold shows or public exhibitions.
(f) To promote the distribution of bromeliads amongst members by exchange, purchase and sale, and to encourage the importation of new plants.
(g) To affiliate with any Society or other body, and to do such things as may be deemed necessary or desirable in the furtherance of these objects.
(h) To accept affiliation from other Societies having similar
_objects._
MEETINGS
Held on the FOURTH Tuesday of each month except December, at Greyfriars Church Hall, 544 Mt. Eden Road, Auckland at 7:30pm.
MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS
New Zealand NZ$20.00 Ordinary
                      NZ$ 5.00 Associate (same household)
Overseas NZ$25.00 Australia
                       NZ$30.00 United States and other overseas Send all payments to the Treasurer, Peter Waters, 22 Halfmoon Rise, Bucklands Beach, AUCKLAND.
CORRESPONDENCE
All general correspondence should be sent to the Secretary, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, 33 Marsden Avenue, Mt. Eden, AUCKLAND. 4.
FRONT COVER
   This photograph, taken in winter, shows a group of Len Trotman's delectable hybrid guzmanias. Healthy dark green leaves combined with long lived, brightly coloured inflorescences make these bromeliads almost irresistible.
(See article on page 7) Photo: Marjorie Lowe
2
CONTENTS                                                      
4 From the President                               Graham West
5,6 August meeting news                          Dave Anderson
6 New members                                                 
7 Guzmania hybrids                                 Len Trotman
8 They got me                                       Bea Hanson
9-13 Variegation Luiz Felipe Nevares de Carvalho              
14 Seedbank                                   Gerry Stansfield
15 Basics for beginners- planting in the garden Andrew Steens 
16-18 Nukshedel                                   Louise Joyce
19-21 Membership Survey - 2000                                
22 Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group                Kevin Scholium
23 Northland Bromeliad Group                  Jacqui O'Connell
24 Wellington Tillandsia Study Group              Phyll Purdie
25,26 Nukshedel (continued)                                   
27 Officers, journal and advertising                          
COMING EVENTS                                                 
SEPTEMBER                                                     
24 Wellington Tillandsia Study Group at the home of Beryl McKellar, 8a Richard Street, Titahi Bay at 1:30pm.
26th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
       Talk: Removing pups, potting up, fungicides & insecticides Silent Auction
       Monthly plant competition: Aechmea orlandiana & hybrids 29th 30th 1st Tauranga Orchid Show - Bromeliad display. OCTOBER
1st Northland Bromeliad Group at Freda Nash's home, cnr.
       Graham Street and Kamo Road.
3rd Deadline for copy for the October Journal.
11th Bay of Plenty Bromeliad Group - 1:00pm at the Clubrooms.
       Committee meeting at 12 noon.
18th BOP garden visit to Gwynneth Glentworth, 157 Waikite Road.
      Welcome Bay at 10am.
24th Auckland meeting, Greyfriars Hall at 7:30pm.
        Talk: Tillandsias
       Monthly plant competition: Neo. marmorata & hybrids 24th Wellington Tillandsia Study Group, 1:30pm at Beryl McKellar's, 8a Richard Street, Titahi Bay.
29th Northland Bromeliad Group at the Green's at Maungkaramea.
3
FROM THE PRESIDENT
   Spring came early this year with a number of lovely fine days. It is also nice and warm.
   There was another good attendence at the August meeting. It is pleasing to see so many new faces.
   If any members have new ideas that we can add to our monthly meetings, just telephone any committee member, or drop a line to the Secretary.
   With the spring weather, our plants are growing nicely and starting to colour up. Now is the time to start to sort out your plants for entry in the competitions at our show in February. It is really important to have a good display of quality plants, as this is the major show place for the Society.
Graham
SEPTEMBER MEETING
   At the September meeting we plan to trial a silent auction. This will be an adjunct to the trading table and will hopefully be an interesting addition to the night's proceedings. A dozen or so plants on the trading table will have no stated price but will have a sheet of paper with each on which to write your name and bid if you are interested. This can be done before the meeting or at the break and of course the last and highest bid at the close of the auction will get the plant. The sucessful bidder can collect the plant, take the sheet to the Treasurer and pay in the normal manner at the end of the meeting.
   Dave Anderson is giving the talk, which is on pup removal, potting up, fungicides and insecticides.
WORKSHOP FOR MEMBERS
Free tuition - learn how to take pups off and pot them up Bring your plants (with pups on!) and share ideas
WHERE: Des Yeates - 158a Henderson Valley Road Telephone (09) 838-6535 WHEN: Sunday 29th October at 1:30pm
plus Brian Dawson will talk on growing & looking after tillandsias
4
AUGUST MEETING NEWS
   Once again we have had a very mild winter in the north of New Zealand. This showed up in the colour of the plants that are being displayed on the competition tables at the meetings. Also, the more tender plants are not showing the cold burn marks that are often seen at this time of year.
   Peter Waters led the discussion on the Show & Tell plants. The first one, for naming, was an Aechmea pineliana coming up into flower. This particular plant could do with more light to give it better colour and make the leaves more compact. Next up were two Neoregelia Flirtation plants that Peter had brought in to show just how bright light increases the colour in the plants. Looking at the plants side by side, it was extremely difficult, if not impossible to identify them as the same plant. One had been grown under the bench in low light whereas the other had been grown in high light. It also shows, just how difficult it is to name accurately the vast array of neoregelia hybrids. A green Aechmea recurvata var. benrathii was brought in for naming and, similar to the first plant, it needs to be grown in much brighter light if not full sun to bring out its colour. On saying that it was an Ae. recurvata v. benrathii, Peter did say that it is extremely doubtful that this variety is in New Zealand, as the true variety does not have spines on the leaves. Someone had brought in a plant named Neoregelia olens, which it certainly wasn't, as Neo. olens is a small stoloniferous plant whereas this one was quite large with spots on the leaves. The embers present were asked to please change their labels if they had this plant in their collections. Last of all, a Billbergia nutans hybrid with its green leaves that turn reddish when grown in bright light.
  Brian Dawson gave an interesting short talk on how he became involved in growing tillandsias.
   This was followed by Dick Endt with a talk accompanied by slides, on his world travels visiting gardens and commercial growers in the United States, Europe etc.
  The door prizes went to Erik Wetting, Joe Murray and Rachel Everett.
The special raffle was won by Sue Schatzdorfer.
Gerry Stansfield won the Conference 2003 raffle.
5
COMPETITIONS
Open flowering: 1st Len Trotman with Guzmania Marjan, and Dick Endt 2nd with Neoregelia macwilliamsii. Also in the competition were Aechmea Fosters Favorite, Vriesea platynema x and Neo.'s kautskyi, Grace and (carolinae x compacta) x macwilliamsii.
Open foliage: Len Trotman was 1st with Vriesea King David Kalakaua, 2nd was Peter Waters with Guzmania lindenii. In the competition were Neo. Rosea Lineata, Ae. Pink Rocket, and Vrieseas fostehana Green, fosteriana Rubra and platynema x gigantea. Tillandsia: Len Trotman's T. carlsoniae was 1st, with 2nd going to Peter Waters' T. punctulata. There were also on the table T.'s aeranthos, capitata Guatemala, caput-medusae x and recurvifolia var. subsecundifolia.
Plant of the month - mounted plants: 1st was Len Trotman's Neo. Lokelani followed by Carol Davis with T. tectorum. In the competition were Tillandsias exserta and lorentziana.
Novice flowering: 1st was Kevin Kilsby with Hohenbergia correia-araujoi, and 2nd Peter Brady with a Billbergia distachia hybrid.
Novice foliage: 1st was Noeline Ritson with Vriesea fosteriana Rubra and 2nd was a Neo. marmorata hybrid.
Best plant of the month: Len Trotman with Vriesea King David Kalakaua.
Congratulations to all the winners.
Dave Anderson
NEW MEMBERS
Bayley, Grant, 25 Fifth Avenue, Mt Albert, Ak.
Drever, Ann, 12a Third Avenue. Whangarei.
Goode, Tom, 8 Dennis Avenue, Manurewa, Ak.
Oates, John, 5b Dayspring Way, Pakuranga, Ak.
Porter, Jill, 2/43a Milton Road, Mt Eden, Ak.
Smith, Pat, 113 Tanners Point Road, RD1 Katikati.
Walker, Ross & Julia, 72 New Windsor Road, Avondale, Ak.
White, Adele, 12 Daffodil Street, Titirangi, Ak.
White, Iris, 25a Ngaiwi Street, Orakei, Ak.
      CENTRAL COAST NSW BROMELIAD SOCIETY INC Web site:
http://www.tac.com.au/bromeliad/index_
6
GUZMANIA HYBRIDS
Len Trotman
   In the early days of bromeliad growing, there was only a handful of guzmania species to be had and these were considered to be rather difficult to grow. In fact, some of those early species are still around and still need a bit of pampering to grow well.
   As time went by, the hybridists could see the potential in these plants for the display trade. They have consequently produced some outstanding plants.
   These plants are now produced by tissue culture in vast quantities in some of the European countries and transported to other countries like the United States where they are used in the hire trade as display plants in hotels and shopping malls etc.
   There are also growers in the United States who are hybridising, and growing these plants from seed. Despite the fact that hybrids do not come true from seed, by long and careful selection and culling, American growers offer seed that produces remarkably consistent plants. The plants featured on the front cover are hybrids produced from seed in the United States and imported into New Zealand as small plants.
   Hybrid guzmanias are much hardier than the species and can be grown wherever you grow ferns. In their natural habitat, these plants grow on the forest floor where it is shady and moist - so if you can get them into this kind of environment then they will grow well outside. They are of course frost tender.
   They can be planted into the ground provided they are planted into a good open mix. For the best results, give them some liquid fertiliser now and then.
  My hybrid stock is grown on in the space created between the east-facing wall of the house and the boundary fence. It is roofed over with corrugated plastic, which ensures that the plants receive bright filtered light. The space is open to the weather at the north end but enclosed on the south. Midwinter sun is usually about 9:30-11am, and in midsummer, earlier but still gone by 11 am.
   Guzmanias are mostly green leafed plants with a fine red stripe up the leaf but there are some fine variegated plants as well.
   The inflorescences are quite stunning and will last in colour for many months. They can also be used as a cut flower and in fact we had one in a vase for just on twelve months!
7
LOOKING BACK
June - 1974
They got me! Bea Hanson
   Deciding to dismantle a bed that was full of weeds and all sorts of awful grasses, the first thing I had to do was remove all the plants. Sounds easy enough and so it was, but it was rather more difficult to find where to put them - even for the time being.
   The logical place was the rockery - for some time at least - but it was somewhat overcrowded. However, I dug up all the clumps of Aechmea recurvata var. benrathii and tenderly carried them up to their proposed new home. I placed them gently on the lawn and then stood there and wondered where I would be able to fit them in. I decided that the best thing to do would be to remove a clump of Billbergia vittata and use that space.
   I am now convinced that bromeliads are not only mind readers but can also communicate with each other!
   The Billbergia vittata decided that as it had been there for some years it had no intention of moving. I dug round it first and eased it gently. Nothing happened. More digging and more easing —this time not so gently. This time a slight movement so I tugged really hard. Darn it, I just HAD to get the thing out! More digging and I informed it there was not going to be any more gentle handling and I gave it a mighty tug, another and another.
   Suddenly, all the heads must have yelled to each other "Let Go!" for out it came. Caught unawares, I staggered back and as the benrathii saw me coming, I swear they must have yelled "Spines up!" They were - every little and large spine those cruel plants possessed. And to think I had carried them up so gently! I wished that I had been a Dead End Kid. I have removed cactus spines from my seat before today, but can you imagine how hard it is to even see bromeliad spines?
   The plants are now in place and all flowering beautifully. Sometimes when I admire them, I can almost see their coloured centres taking on a deeper hue as they remember how they taught me that they just don't lie down and take everything that is done for them. Be it for their good or not.
8
VARIEGATION IN BROMELIADS
Luiz Felipe Nevares de Carvalho Rio de Janeiro
   Variegation is a rather common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, and is found in many plant families. It is especially pronounced in Bromeliaceae.
   The word "variegata" comes from Latin -variegatus, variegata, variegatum - meaning variable colouration with patches of different colours. A bromeliad is known as "variegata" when it has two or more different colours. Over 60% of cultivated bromeliads have bands, dots, lines and streaks and can therefore be considered variegated. However, the term is accepted in horticulture when applied to bromeliads that have leaves with lines, streaks and longitudinal bands of contrasting colours, especially those that show differences in pigmentation between the green chlorophyll-containing tissues and albino tissues.
   On the other hand, if we look at the many bromeliads that grow in the wild, it appears that variegation is a rare phenomenon. As a general rule, patently variegated plants are less hardy and slower growing than normal, and those that arise spontaneously in nature normally survive the competition for space and light only when man intervenes, taking them from the wild for cultivation.
   Variegation is rarely found in the subfamily Pitcairnioideae, and is not particularly common in Tillandsioideae. It does occur however in the genera Guzmania, Vriesea, Alcantarea and in a few species of Tillandsia. In the subfamily Bromelioideae, variegation is quite common, especially in the genera Aechmea, Ananas, Billbergia, Cryptanthus, Neoregeiia and Nidularium.
CAUSES OF VARIEGATION
   Although there has been much progress in scientific research on bromeliads, comparatively little is known about the causes of variegation. As a general rule, botanists agree that bromeliads have a mutable genetic structure, and therefore, several different theories are possible. The first of these links variegation to virus infection.
   Viruses are common in plants and animals and may cause many harmful and debilitating illnesses. In nature, they provide a quality control system for living organisms. These viroids have the capacity to alter the genetic programming of plant cells by molecular inclusion or extraction of chromosomes. Bromeliads are known to host viruses,
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but the physiological mechanisms of virus infection in plants is poorly known.
   Viruses may attack the plant meristem or main vascular system. Bromeliads are monocotyledons and as such, they mostly have parallel veins running lengthwise along the leaves. Beginning with a tissue with infected cells, as the plant grows, the "problem" is transmitted down the entire leaf, producing clearly defined lines or bands. Variegation that appears in plants grown from seed can be explained by previous infection of the seed producing plant, even before ovule fertilisation, or by infection of the pollen grains. The viruses are often no longer present when the symptoms - variegation
- manifest themselves.
   Variegation is also thought to be frequently associated with environmental factors, but there is no scientific proof to back up this assumption. Some investigators support the hypothesis that natural radiation may cause genetic mutation. Laboratory experiments show that B- and X-rays lower the number of meristem cells, which may cause variegation.
   Chemical substances are also capable of producing variegation in plants. It is a wellknown fact that flower-inducing substances produce lateral buds of the "variegata" type in adult plants.
   Factors relating to microclimate, temperature, humidity and light are also sometimes mentioned as influencing variegation. Biological stress, such as prolonged dehydration or poor nutrition, is said to bring on variegation, as are ecological disturbances such as fire, flooding, freezing, cyclones etc.
   In short, variegation may be caused by genetic mutation or by virus infection, but it seems probable that a number of different causes can potentially bring on this phenomenon.
TYPES OF VARIEGATION
   Plants with two different types of tissues - albino and chlorophyll -pigmented (diploid and tetraploid) - are called chimeras. This definition can be applied to the "variegatas". Variegation may be fixed or mutable, temporary or permanent. Tissues with fewer chloroplasts are light green or yellowish in colour. A total lack of chloroplasts leads to white or cream coloured tissues. There are certain visible forms of variegation that are recognised botanically, although naming the
10
forms is not always consistent or precise, and some are treated as
synonyms:
variegata
The white or yellow bands have no clear organisation, and usually do not extend to the margin of the leaf. As was mentioned above, the term "variegata" refers generically to any form of variegation (Vriesea platynema var. variegata). The term striata is also used here (Nidularium innocentii var. striatum). marginata
The leaf margins are white (albomarginata) or yellow (flavomarginata) and the central part of the leaf is green (Aechmea nudicaulis var. flavomarginata). lineata
Thin white or yellow lines run along the leaf (Nidularium innocentii var.
lineatum).
medio-picta
Meaning "painted centre", this type is similar to "variegata" but with
green stripes in the centre of the leaf.
tricolor
Three-coloured; usually green, cream and rose (Neoregelia carolinae
forma tricolor).
quadricolor
Four coloured; usually white, yellow, red and green (Aechmea magdalenae var. quadricolor).
   The pigment group known as the anthocyanins is present in many bromeliads; it is found in the epidermal cells and may hide both chlorophyll pigmented and albino tissues. In Aechmea oriandiana 'Ensign', anthocyanin produces a very beautiful red or rose colour in the albino tissue. Reddish brown stripes and bands are found in several hybrids such as Aechmea Red Ribbon and Neoregelia Amazing Grace. Variegation is also found sometimes in inflorescences, and in primary and floral bracts, such as happens in some Guzmania hybrids.
PROPAGATION OF VARIEGATES
   Theoretically, vegetative reproduction will lead to the replication of the mother plant, but this method is not totally reliable when dealing with variegates. Even the best lines - the so-called fixed clones - may occasionally show some alteration. Some however, have survived for decades without mutations, generation after generation.
11
   As a rule, variegated plants are harder to grow than all green plants. Inflorescences are smaller than normal and the tendency to bud laterally is also reduced. Some have definitely slower growth rates than normal plants. This is especially true of vrieseas and guzmanias, which also are slower to take root.
   It is advisable to leave lateral shoots on the mother plant for a longer time than with normal plants. Experience has shown that shoots about half the size of the mother plant can be detached with no problem. An important sign of shoot maturity is root emergence. To promote increased production of lateral shoots, the removal of the newly formed inflorescence is recommended, so that the plant can channel its energy into the lateral shoots.
   Mutable variegate plants tend to produce either albino shoots or all-green shoots. True albinos are apt to die when separated from the mother plant thus wasting precious reproductive energy. It is therefore recommended that they be removed as soon as they appear.
   Reprinted from Brom&ia, Volume 3 Number 4 - the Journal of the Sociedade de Brasileira de Brom6lias.
ANTHOCYANIN...one of the blue, violet or red pigments in plants CHLOROPLASTS...an individual mass or unit of protoplasm as a cell, containing chlorophyll
DIPLOID...having two corresponding sets of chromosomes - one from each parent, each having a single set of unpaired chromosomes. TETRAPLOID...diploid x two MERISTEM...the unformed growing cellular tissue of the younger part of plants
MONOCOTYLEDON...a flowering plant having one cotyledon or seed leaf in the embryo
OVULE...the rudimentary seed in a seed plant - the body which contains the female germ-cell and after fertilisation becomes a seed
Top opposite: Neoregelia carolinae 'Albomarginata'
Photo: Julie Greenhill
Bottom opposite: Vriesea Sunset (Vriesea splendens var. formosa x sucrei). A John Arden hybrid made about ten years ago and only recently named. An example of tricolor variegation. Photo: Peter Waters
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f
X
*
SEED BANK
NOW AVAILABLE:
Aechmea - aquilega, bracteata, bromeliifolia, coelestis v. coelestis, fraseri, pittieri, recurvata var?, recurvata (new type from Paraguay), spectabilis Alcantarea - regina
Billbergia - vittata, vittata hybrid, zebrina
Dyckia - brevifolia, fosteriana (dark form), Dyckia (unknown) ex. USA
- BSI, platyphylla Edmundoa - lindenii v. rosea
Guzmania - lingulata (was from variegata but will only germinate as v. lingulata)
Neoregelia - ampullacea (dark form)
Nidularium - amazonicum, innocentii v. innocentii Pitcairnia - carinata, flammea v. roezlii, imbricata, tabuliformis Puya - coerulea v. mirabilis, venusta
Tillandsia - butzii, fasciculata (Florida) flabellata (dark form), juncea (large form), limbata, magnusiana, myosura, plagiotropica, pohliana, schiediana (small form), tricolor, viridiflora
Vriesea - bituminosa, gigantea, hieroglyphica, modesta, platynema v. variegata, platynema (ex Trinidad), scalaris, splendens Germination is good on all seed.
New seed received from Ken Woods, Australia, Harvey Beltz, USA, Helen Carruthers, Opotiki and Bob & Lynn Hudson, Cairns.
• The seedbank will exchange two packets of 20 seeds for one (1) large packet of your seed. Make sure it is labelled correctly.
• Please send in a large stamped envelope.
• Packets (of at least 20 seeds) are 50 cents,
• Limited to two packets of seed per kind per member.
ORDERS:
with large, stamped, addressed envelope and spare seed to: Gerry Stansfield, 7 Noall Street, Te Atatu Peninsula, Auckland. Telephone (09) 834-7178
14
BASICS FOR BEGINNERS
Planting bromeliads in the garden Andrew Steens
   Planting bromeliads in the garden is very simple, as long as a few basic rules are applied.
Spacing:
   In general, space the plants at least one (mature) width apart. This allows at least one generation of pups to develop before you need to consider thinning out or transplanting. However, if the plant is not full size, for example a small Vriesea hieroglyphica or Alcantarea imperialis, then you will need to plant to plant more openly. A full sized Al. imperialis can have a span of 1.5 metres. If you need to, fill the gaps with smaller bromeliads or low groundcover plants.
Soil preparation:
   For most bromeliads, the soil needs to be free draining. If it is a heavy clay or does not drain well, then place a layer of free draining material such as composted bark, fibrous compost or similar on the surface of the soil. Most bromeliads will only need a layer 5-12cm deep. Plant the bromeliad in this and support it with small stones around the base to keep it upright.
   It is an advantage, but not absolutely necessary, for the soil to have good nutrient levels. Bromeliads will feed off matter that falls into the cups, but will grow better if the soil has some nutrients also. Avoid products that contain mushroom compost or animal manure though, as they can provide too much of a good thing.
Digging:
   If the soil is volcanic, sandy or otherwise drains well, a hole the size of the pot is all that is required.
Planting:
   Simply tip the plant upside down and remove from the pot. Most of the bark should come with the root ball, but if the plant has very few roots then just tip the medium into the hole. Place the plant at the height it was in the pot. If it is unstable, just wedge some small stones around the base. It will gradually stabilise itself as pups develop. Watering:
   Give the plant a good watering as soon as it is planted. This will top up the cup and help get it over the trauma of planting. A little bit of extra shade for the first few days is also beneficial.
15
'NUKSHEDEL'
David and Tami Vazey.
Louise Joyce
  Pass through the exquisite wrought iron peacock gates and two things come into view. First, is a cultural statement alien to New Zealand but blends so comfortably with the landscape that it seems as if it has taken root and grown into it. Second is a massive black creature with plate-size feet who rules the property and gives visitors the once over. Storm is a Great Dane-English Mastiff cross who at 20 months already weighs 100 kilos.
   His domain is the garden which, along with the house, sits in just over half an acre. Together they create a Middle Eastern oasis in the rural outskirts of Auckland.
   It is the house that first draws the visitor's breath. It is a Moorish design, limewashed in a bold saffron colour with intricate wrought iron work and an imposing five column Moroccan marble and tile archway edging a tiled terrace. It overlooks a giant rock garden, which just a few years ago was a steep clay bank. Now it forms a magnificent access to either the front door or the terrace.
  Neither the house nor the garden is a whim of fantasy. They come from a love of a woman. David fell under the spell of Moroccan architecture when his Iraqi-born wife, Tami, took him on a journey to Israel, Spain and Morocco to share with him her culture, her people, and her roots.
  It was an inspiration. They returned to New Zealand with a container load of Middle Eastern items, most of which were sold to help pay for their land and home. Before construction, David sat, day
Top opposite: Looking up the rock garden from the driveway towards the house, the fountain in the central arch is silhouetted against the sky. As well as bromeliads, cycads and palms, the planting includes succulents, cordylines, cyclamen, Xeronema callistemon, Scleranthus biflorus and the groundcover Heterocentron elegans (Spanish Shawl). Photo: David Vazey
Bottom opposite: High up on a treefern, a combined planting of bromeliads and orchids - Tillandsia stricta, a vriesea, Epidendrum radicans and a cymbidium. Beyond the rear terrace, the bushclad slope drops away so sharply that leaning against the balustrade one can almost touch the plants.
Photo: Marjorie Lowe
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after day, to watch where the sun fell and to work out how he could design the house around the existing native trees. He began working on the property 10 years ago and is still putting finishing touches to the interior as well as working on the garden.
   Flanking the lower driveway is a mixture of natives such as mature rimu, manuka, pittosporum, cabbage trees, and tree ferns (Cyathea dealbata). Interspersed are some palms and bromeliads but as the drive rises to meet the house, there are more palms, vireya rhododendrons and both sun and shade-tolerant bromeliads. One is an Aechmea Burgundy with a red and white berry spike. The plant came from the garden of an 85-year old woman, who inherited the collection from her mother. A pathway takes you to more bromeliads and palm species, including Chambeyronia macrocarpa from New Caledonia where he collected its seeds, Musa coccinea, a dwarf banana and Brahea edulis, a fan palm from Mexico with long flower bracts.
   David, an engineer, was always a keen gardener but was not introduced to bromeliads until Tami brought one home some years ago. It was a purple-centred Neoregelia concentrica hybrid whose offspring are now planted in clumps all over the property. One large group was quite dazzling as it displayed rich, deep purple hearts during our late August visit. It shares a shady spot with several slender-trunked Chamaedorea woodsoniana palms as well as a Guzmania wittmackii which, although it receives morning sun, obviously likes the spot as it produced a flower spike nearly a metre tall lasting for months.
   David's preference for planting bromeliads en masse and in blends of colour is apparent when other striking clusters are seen. One is Neoregelia johannis at nearly a metre wide and clumps of Aechmea caudata which flower orange, followed by yellow seedheads that often last for up to eighteen months. Both species are growing in full sun in the rock garden.
   But it was only in the last five years that he became seriously interested in bromeliads. He knew little about them, but says that with everything in life there is always someone who knows, and one of the best ways of observing and learning is to join a club. However David is not a person to do things "by the book." He leaves pups on bromeliads until they are as big as the parent and then plants them straight away, not bothering about a drying off period. He grows guzmanias on the south-east side of the house (their property is frost free) (continued on page 25)
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MEMBERSHIP SURVEY - 2000
   The current New Zealand membership of the Bromeliad Society is now 346 including 61 associates. Of these, 15.3% (53) joined 10-39 years ago, 15.3% (53) joined 5-10 years ago, 24.6% (85) joined 2-5 years ago, 15% (52) have belonged for 1-2 years and 29.8% (103) for less than a year. Membership of two years and less accounts for 44.8% (155) of the Society's numbers.
  Even allowing for members not renewing and many newer members feeling that they did not have enough knowledge yet to complete the form (though some made a gallant stab at it), the return rate would seem to be approximately just over 50%. - not very enheartening. It also presents problems with making deductions from the returns.
   In order to make use of the survey, it is necessary to assume that a reasonable cross section of members returned their forms. So... From the very beginning of recording the figures, two things stood out strongly - the steadily increasing numbers of members who grow bromeliads in their gardens and the increasing numbers who grow their bromeliads nowhere else (except in the bush). This probably is the cause of the change in plant preferences. Despite changing the choice from 1-3 (1996) to 1-4 (2000), the genus popularity list has remained virtually identical with the notable exception of tillandsias. They have plummeted from first place to fourth, with less than half the votes of the new leader, neoregelias. Even using 1-3 placing, they remain in the same position. Garden friendly neoregelias, vrieseas and aechmeas take the first three places.
   Figures in brackets represent the 1996 survey results.
(1) How many years have you been actively cultivating bromeliads? 1-4 yrs...32% (31%) 10-14 yrs...21% (19%) 20-19yrs...6% (7%) 5-9yrs...23% (24%) 15-19yrs....9% (9%) 30 plus......8% (9%)
(2) How many bromeliads do you grow?
1-20 plants...9% (17%) 50-150....36% (34%) Over 600-20-50... 25% (28%) 150-600...24% (12%) 11% (9%)
(3) How many different bromeliads do you grow?
Many members did not understand this question. Perhaps it should have been - how many genera do you grow?
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(4) Where do you grow your bromeliads?
Garden all year 81.3% (72%)
Garden only 30%
In the bush 20.6% (31%)
(Garden only + garden/bush = 50.6%)
Garden in summer 12.2%
Shadehouse 38.3% (52%)
Glasshouse, plastic 27% (44%) includes conservatories Heated glasshouse 6.5%
Indoors 13.1% (21%)
(5) Do you fertilise your plants?
Regularly 14% (12%)
Occasionally 47.7% (70%)
Never 38.3% (16%)
(6) Do you grow from seed? .
Yes 18.7% (17%)
(7) Have you hybridised bromeliads?
Yes 5.6% (This means six members, none of whom have registered their crosses).
(8) Where do you get your bromeliads?
Bromeliad Society 75.7% (68%)
Friends 68.2% (62%)
Commercial growers 62.6% (59%)
Imports 3.7% (7%)
Other - included family, markets of all kinds and natural increase.
(9) What is your favourite genus? - Rank in order 1 to 4.
First    Second         Third     Fourth        
Neo.  44 Aechmea     23 Ae.   22  Nidularium  16
Vr.   20 Vriesea     19 Vr.   18  Aechmea     14
Till. 17 Neoregelia  17 Till. 13  Vriesea     14
Guz.  5  Guzmania    6  Neo.  12  Tillandsia  13
Ae.   4  Nidularium  6  Bill. •10 Billbergia  9 
Bill. 3  Tillandsia  6  Cryp. 3   Guzmania    7 
Puya  2  Billbergia  4  Nid.  3   Cryptanthus 5 
Nid.  0  Cryptanthus 1  Guz.  2   Neoregelia  5 
Overall points allowing 4 for (1st) 3 for (2nd) 2 for (3rd) 1 for (4th)
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256 - Neoregelia - (Rated 1-3...178 (115)
187 - Vriesea 143 - Aechmea 121 - Tillandsia 53 - Billbergia 49 - Guzmania 40 - Nidularium 14 - Cryptanthus
" 116(89)
80 (66)
76 (123)
" 27(19)
- " 29(21)
" 15(17)
5(12)
 8 - Puya 3 - Hechtia 2 - Dyckia
Some people did not rank their choices so they could not be counted.
(10) Do you read the Journal?
97.2% read it always, three members read it sometimes and, fortunately, no one admits to never looking at it.
(11) How do you rate the Journal?
Excellent....48.1% Very good 46.2% Good 5.7%
No one thought it fair or poor.
(12) What would you like to see included in the Journal? or excluded!
   Well, for starters the most popular request (and appreciation of) was for photos, more photos, particular photos, all photos. Much as I would like to please everyone, the budget simply won't stand it. The Journal is 24/28 pages including four pages of photos each month. Mailing out accounts for one third of the cost. Subscriptions are $20, the cost of the Journal per member to the Society is about $30 per year. Subsidy of Journal costs is about $3000 per annum, and comes from profits made at the annual competitive show (lots of hard work).
   Practical articles like 'How to set up a shadehouse' were asked for, and more about terrestrial bromeliads, different plants, plant of the month and display table plants. One member asked for a list of nurseries and retail outlets - I would be happy to do this but it relies on member participation which, I fear, is sadly lacking. A country corner was asked for but it also requires feedback from readers. Some requested more member participation (only you can do this). The feedback on the Question & Answer Problem series was nil. The Plant Identification service was also nil. Letters to the editor are rare but much appreciated. And those photos! Only two have been received by me. Those that you see have been solicited, as have the articles (exception-Cor Schipper). PO Box 91-728 is waiting.!!!
21
BAY OF PLENTY BROMELIAD GROUP
   The September 13th meeting was very well attended with some new members.
   Lynley Roy gave a rundown on our financial situation, which is in good heart.
   Barry Jones gave a talk on cryptanthus which was the plant of the month - a lot more plants came forward than was expected. They seem to like bright light and warm conditions. He also gave a demonstration of taking off pups and potting them up.
Competition plants:
1st Anne Gale - Guzmania Scarlatina
2nd= Isabel Clotworthy - Guzmania Mini Exodus
2nd= Anne Connelly - Aechmea recurvata v. recurvata
Others entered - Aechmea Aztec Gold, Guzmania sanguinea,
Neoregelias Superball and Electric Red.
   The display table had some nice plants on show, among them Aechmea Red Ribbon, Neo's. Fall in Love and Sweet Dreams, Till's, jucunda and tenuifolia, and Vriesea incurvata.
   The raffle was won by Brian Chudleigh (Guzmania Exodus) and Natalie Simmonds (Aechmea recurvata var. recurvata)
   Plant of the month for October is tillandsia.
Garden visits: October 18th 10am - Gwynneth Glentworth November 16th 10am - Jill Nisbet Next meeting: October 11th at 1pm, committee at 12 noon
Kevin Scholium_
(Continued)
   Requests for novice advice and overseas articles have been addressed - these are published each month. Ecology, habitat and science also figure but are not as easily found (at least in readily understandable terminology). Bea Hanson's old articles are now included occasionally, as are some 'funnies'. Do we have a cartoonist around?
   Most of the comments were appreciative rather than suggestive (!) Some one wrote that the Journal would be excellent if there was more about tillandsias. As for exclusion - only 'less on showing/displaying' and 'no more poems'! More of everything, plus more photos seems to be the general consensus - so if you want more, you too will have to pull your weight and PARTICIPATE. THE EDITOR
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NORTHLAND BROMELIAD GROUP
  The August meeting was held at Susie Bliss' home in Russell Road, Whangarei. She has a lovely setting with native trees and a stream trickling through. Susie has a great array of succulents for sale and is just starting to get hooked on bromeliads, which should do very well there.
   A discussion was held on the difference between a hybrid and a bigeneric. We really are very lucky to have our gurus, Maureen and Keith Green, to explain these complexities to us. There were a number of questions from our newer members on cultivation, as well as diagnosing a sick guzmania brought along by Jan Waldron. The question was asked about slimy water accumulating in the cups of bromeliads. We were advised to flush them out with a hose, but to wait for a warm day to do this.
  Maureen had brought along a mouth-watering collection of variegated neoregelias to show us all the differences in variegation. She also explained how some variegated varieties throw plain pups, which in turn may have variegated pups. Discussion was also had on the name changes which have gone on in the past year or so, all of which are very confusing for us amateurs!!
   Only four members had brought along their Tillandsia velickiana plants, which we have been growing for the past year. Some of us had lost them, and of the ones brought along, John Frew's seem to have grown very well. John glued his in a small terracotta saucer, which must have provided the right amount of humidity.
  Maureen with a magnificent pink Neoregelia Empress won the popular vote. A nice Quesnelia humilis in flower took second place for John and Colleen Frew. Third place was a Tillandsia with a large flower spike belonging to Freda Nash.
   As usual our raffles were very well patronised, with just about everyone winning something.
   Next meeting will be held a week late, on October 1st (due to involvement by our members in the Northland Orchid Show) at Freda Nash's home on the corner of Graham Street and Kamo Road. The following meeting will be at the Greens at Maungakaramea on the 29th October.
Jacqui O'Connell
The opinions expressed in letters or articles in this magazine are the authors' own views and do not necessarily express the policy of the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand.
23
WELLINGTON TILLANDSIA STUDY GROUP
Nine members and four visitors attended the meeting held at Dianne O'Neill's, Akatarawa on July 30th Plants shown were -
   T. tenuifolia with 4 cerise inflorescences, T. leonamiana (correctly T. recurvifolia var. subsecundifolia PW) with apricot bracts, T. disticha major, with its branched inflorescence with yellow flowers. Next were two T. punctulata, the one, grown high up in the conservatory with red toned leaves, the other all green. The flower bract is a striking cerise, with the fat, green inflorescence emerging and later, the tubular, purple tipped white flowers. Both these plants had taken since November to mature their flower stalks, but the wait was well rewarded. Pups should be left on the plant if flowers are desired and some warmth is required. Both the mounted and the potted plant were doing well. A clump of T. crocata had only one yellow flower. It was suggested that this plant flowers better in cooler conditions.
   The weather in Wellington has been more like spring this year than winter with a series of warm, sunny days. This has affected the normal growth patterns of the tillandsias. Some plants were noticeably sunburnt, the worst affected were T. albida, T. straminea and some similar seedlings. A T. cardenasii that usually bloomed in the winter months, had a dried up inflorescence that looked as if the sun had burnt it. The shade cloth had now been put on! It was also explained that tillandsias need fresh, damper air circulating for good growth and not just dry air circulated round continuously by a fan.
   T. argentea, a small plant, had attractive pink single flowers arising from amongst the leaves. The green spiked T. lindenii brought in last meeting, was found to have coloured up more but only on the side facing the sun. After a wait of six months, T. leiboldiana was still not out but T. purpurea 'Spiralifolia' was still in flower after two months. A plant of Aechmea fasciata which had been badly burnt in an unshaded glasshouse last summer, had gone on to grow new leaves, many pups, and had produced two flower spikes.
   Diane's collection was viewed. Her plants were noticeably happier this year after being moved to a sunnier part of her shadehouse. Many of the plants had an attractive colouring as well, this in spite of the frosts up in this valley.
Phyl Purdie
Next meeting: September 24th, 1:30pm at Beryl McKellar's, 8a Richard Street, Titahi Bay.
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NUKSHEDEL (Continued from page 18)
but they get up to at least an hour's full sun each day and he happily ignores advice not to grow bromeliads on manuka. Instead he has liberally festooned the teatrees with plants, many of which are Neoregelia Fireball and Superball (Len Trotman is his main source). He loves them for their brilliant colour and their ability to quickly look natural as they ''walk along" branches on long stolons.
   He believes that, where possible, epiphytes should be grown on trees, and he has created a colourful community of not only bromeliads but also cymbidium orchids, Vireya rhododendrons and anything else epiphytic perched on a variety of trees. Some are contained in the dried leaf sheaths of nikau palms, which are nailed or stapled to the tree and filled with mulch, dirt, and crystal rain.
Many of them are placed at least 6m high. David has solved the problem of access for liquid refreshment by using a child's toy - he gets a great deal of fun bombarding the plants with a water cannon -and his aim must be good because all the plants seem to be thriving!
  Creativity is the key to this garden and David uses what is available. For instance, a huge gum tree about a metre in diameter toppled over, exposing its surface root base still encased in dirt. It could have been an eyesore, but David's remedy was to plant it and an arching branch with cymbidiums and bromeliads. Another example, is making something of a concrete water tank by partly cladding it with brushwood and popping in a billbergia or two (now flowering) or having a bromeliad share its nest with a cymbidium.
   Space is limited at the back of the house as the bushclad section drops to a gully, but David's solution was to plant some palms and bromeliads in the existing native bush. He also put bromeliads on tree branches and then framed the view of opposite hills with 2m or 3m-high multiple wrought iron pot stands full of tillandsias, vrieseas, guzmanias and other varieties to provide a splash of colour against the green bush.
   This creativity is hardly surprising. David is using his engineering skills to work full-time crafting wonderful pieces in wrought-iron. His talent is displayed in and on the house with the upper deck wreathed in delicate wrought iron roses enclosed in intricate lattice. The lower terrace is also embellished with wrought iron features and there are sculptures in the garden. Among the plants can be found wrought iron philodendrons and birds of paradise. The remarkable front gates have been mentioned, but there are also two arched openings in the high walls enclosing the property & they have wrought-iron gates through
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which can be seen the adjoining bush reserve. At the moment David is preparing to work on a conservatory - his biggest commission to date. His talents also include the flamenco guitar that he often plays to accompany Tami, who is an accomplished flamenco dancer.
   His key gardening ploy is little or no maintenance. He uses heaps of mulch and lots of rock which he reckons is the best thing to put around plants for keeping ground temperatures stable. Visitors have often expressed amazement at the growth rate of his plants, but he attributes that to the heat contained in the rocks. That is borne out by the garden's showpiece, the huge rock garden in which he is growing a mixture of plants such as cycads, palms, cyclamen, kalanchoe species, orchids, a vivid bronze-purple leafed oxalis hybrid, Scleranthus biflorus and bromeliads. David thinks people do not use enough rock in their gardens, which he says is a wonderful natural product and, best of all, does not need weeding.
   He is about to finish the rock garden by connecting a water feature. This will flow from the three-tiered marble fountain on the terrace and down through the garden. With water features such an important and predominant part in Middle Eastern architecture, the property will then truly reflect its origins. But even now, it fulfills the translation of its Turkish name, "Nukshedel". It is indeed an "ornament of the heart."
BACK COVER
Left:
   Looking down from the upper terrace to where the pool at the base of the fountain can be seen. Curved bluestone kerbing is used to emulate the shape of traditional Islamic pool surrounds and plain kerbstones are used to edge the tiled terrace. A wrought-iron planter holds bromeliads in Morrocan pots and in the foreground is a mass planting of neoregelias.
Right:
   A stone path leads down from the terrace to the gate in the high wall and then on to the driveway below. In the foreground, a brightly foliaged Ursulaea tuitensis slightly obscures 'Bird of Paradise', one of David's metal sculptures.
   Above and beyond the wall can be seen the native bush reserve that stretches to the Waitakeres.
Photos: Marjorie Lowe
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JOURNAL
Please send articles, photographs and advertisements to the Editor, P.O. Box 91 -728, AUCKLAND. Phone/ Fax (09) 376-6874.
Deadline for copy is the FIRST Tuesday of each month.
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Advertisements must be bromeliad related._
Billbergia pyramidalis:
   It is well known that this is a good tree climber. Its long stolons grope amongst the trunk and branches, ever crawling, winding, getting higher and higher. Even when potted, it still preserves its stolon and climbing habit. But what is not well known, is that when planted in the ground, this true habit disappears and is lost. No stolons are sent out, but instead a tight clustering habit develops and flowering appears to be more prolific.
Reprinted from Newslink, lllawarra Bromeliad Society, April 2000_
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